Programming 4 Kids in Scratch 2: Challenge #1 – Introduction to Scratch

Programming 4 Kids in Scratch 2: Challenge #1 – Introduction to Scratch


[Theme music plays] This challenge will first work with basic parts
of Scratch and programming, and will grow to more challenging topics,
even including a little trigonometry. But don’t worry.
You’ll see you don’t need to know
trigonometry or algebra to program. Instead this series focuses on critical
thinking and problem solving skills – great skills for whatever your interests are. But first things first. In this introductory challenge I’ll give an overview
of the different areas of the Scratch window, create a program and run it. I’ll look at the stage … the sprite’s list … the costumes area … the scripts area … and I’ll get a little experience with some
of the 10 palettes of command blocks,
including “Looks” … “Events” … and “Motion”. I’ll look at backdrops … programming icons … and the main menu. I’ll also create a program and change it. Don’t worry about of these different areas. They’ll all be explored in this and future challenges. Your Scratch window may look
a little different than mine. The differences between web page and the
offline editor are only an issue when saving work as I’ll show later. Now I’ll look at each of these areas. The sprites are on the stage. The cat sprite does what my program tells it to do. The green start flag can start my program running, … and the red stop sign
stops my program when it’s running. On the stage my pointer’s location
is shown on the stage’s lower right. Don’t worry about the details of X and Y right now. Programmers, especially younger programmers,
will be able to move the sprite around the stage with very little understanding of X and Y. I’ll explore X and Y locations more in other challenges
and one specifically about Cartesian Coordinates. It’s easy to move the sprite
without worrying about its X/Y location. For example I have the “Move Steps” command block
and it’s set for 10 steps right now. When I click on the block … the cat moved forward 10 steps
and its X value is 10. I’ll do it again. The cat moved another 10, and X is 20. I’ll click on it one more time … and the value is 30. I can turn the cat. I can turn it to its left counterclockwise. I’ll do that couple times. I can move some steps again. I’ll click on the “Move Steps” block. I moved 10 steps, but Scratch figured out
what its new X and Y locations are. I don’t have to worry about it. I can move steps again. Run it … and again. I can turn the cat to the right. I’ll click on it.
And again. If I want to go back to the center of the stage
I can use the “Go To” command block. Going to X=0, y=0, moves the sprite
to the center of the stage, where the origin is. I’ll click on it now … and the cat’s back
in the center of the stage. I also see that
the cat’s X/Y location is (0, 0) again. I’ll look at costumes now. Costumes give sprites different looks … such as different body positions
or different clothes or colors. The cat has two costumes: “costume1” and “costume 2”. I’ve been using the first costume. Here’s the 2nd costume. Notice that if I click on the costumes fast enough it looks like the cat is hopping or skipping along. My program can select the different costumes. I’ll go back to “Scripts” … on the “Looks” palette … I’ll find the “Next Costume” command block. I can click on the block and select a different costume for the cat. I’ll do it a few more times. Watch the cat change. Another area to look at
is the Sprite’s List. I could add another sprite
to my program to be with the cat, use the scroll bar … if I click on
“Choose sprite from library” button … use the scroll bar … I can find a particular sprite I want
and choose it. Since there so many sprites, Scratch has grouped
the sprites into different categories to make it easier to find them. I’m not going to add any sprites at this time,
so I’ll close the window. I’ll cancel. I’ll use additional sprites
in other challenges very soon. The script’s palettes
have many blocks to use. There are 10 palettes and each has a set of command blocks with the same color. For example, “Motion” has the blue blocks … and “Pen” has the green blocks. Also notice that some of the palettes have more blocks than can be shown on the screen. I can use the scroll bar
to see the rest of the commands available. “Looks” has a scroll bar, too. I’ll make my first program now. I’ll use the “Next Costume” command block
I used before. Clicking on it changes the cat’s costume. Click a couple time… But I want to make a program now. The command blocks can be drag and dropped
into the script area. I can run the blocks from here. I’ll click on it a couple times. The costume changes. I’ll try a couple more commands. I’ll get “Say Hello!” for 2 seconds. I’ll get “Think” for 2 seconds. I’ll click on “Say Hello”. The cat displays “Hello!” for 2 seconds
and it disappears. I’ll click on “Think”. The cat displays “Hmm…” for 2 seconds
as a thought bubble, and it disappears. Notice I didn’t hear any sounds. That’s because the sound blocks
are in the “Sound” palette. I’ll play with these
in a future challenge very soon. I’ll go back to “Looks”. I’ve got my command blocks
in the scripts area. I’ve run them individually,
but how do I run them altogether? How can I tell Scratch
to run the blocks altogether? The command blocks
have these notches and holes. If I click on a command block
and drag it close enough … an area will highlight
showing where the blocks can attach. I’ll click down with the mouse button.
Hold the mouse button. As I move close it’ll show where they’ll attach. If I release the mouse button,
they snap together. I don’t have to hold the blocks real close together. If it’s highlighted when I release the button,
they’ll snap together. Now I’ve got three blocks that are together. I’ll add another “Next Costume”. Attach it.
Highlight. Release.
It’s attached. Now I have four blocks altogether. I can click on these blocks to run it. When I click on it … The cat says “Hello!” for two seconds… “Next Costume” … Think for two seconds.
“Next Costume” … And finished. I’ll do it again. Notice that the blocks
are highlighted. I’ll click on it. Highlight begins. The “Hello!” … The thinking …
“Next Costume” … Highlight’s gone.
It’s finished running. I was talking earlier about trying
to run commands from the start flag. I’ll try it now. I’ll click on the green flag. Nothing happened.
Why’s that? That’s because I haven’t told Scratch
that when the green flag’s click on I want my commands to run. I’ll go to “Events” … When the green flag’s clicked … Will it work now? I’ll try it. I’ll click on the green flag. Still nothing happened. Why’s that? That’s because the commands
aren’t attached to it. Clicking on the green flag runs the commands
that are attached to this handler. I’ll attach the command blocks
and run it now. Click on the green flag. I get “Hello!” for 2 seconds.
It’s highlighted. Thinking … Finished. Earlier I mentioned that the red stop sign
can stop a program. I’ll try it.
I’ll start the program. Click on the green flag …
And I’ll stop it. The program stopped running. It didn’t get a chance
to show “Hmm…” for two seconds. Now I’ll look at the helpful programming icons
across the top: “Duplicate”,
“Delete”, “Grow”,
“Shrink”, and “Block Help”. When I click on the “Duplicate” icon the pointer changes to a rubber stamp
and copies what I click on. I’ll duplicate my green flag handler. Now I have two copies. When I click on the “Delete” icon the pointer changes to a pair of scissors,
and I can delete what I’ve clicked on. I’ll delete this extra handler. It’s gone. I can also use up the popup menus
with a right click. “Duplicate” or “delete”. I’ll duplicate. Move the blocks. I’ve copied the block set. If I right click and select “delete” from the top
it deletes the block set. If I duplicate or delete
from somewhere inside the block set then all the blocks are selected from the end
up to where I started. Another way to delete a block set
is to drag and drop it onto the palette area. They’re deleted. I have the “Grow” and “Shrink” icons. I’ll try “Grow”. The cursor changes to arrows pointing outward. Now as long as I click
on the sprite it gets larger… [Typing sounds]
and larger and larger. When I use the “Shrink” icon I get arrows pointing inward. As long as I
keep clicking on the same sprite, [typing sounds]
the sprite will shrink … and shrink and shrink. If I want the sprite back to its normal size
I can use the “Set Size” command block. I’ll go to “Looks” … “Set Size”. Bring it into the scripts area. It’s currently at 40%. I’ll click on the 40.
And type in ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘0’ for 100. Now I’ll click on the block, and the cat’s returned
to its normal size of 100. I’ll get rid of the block. I’ll look at the last icon:
“Block Help”. If I click on “Block Help” the cursor changes to a question mark (‘?’). Then if I click on a command block,
say “Set Size”, the help tip appears. It describes the command block. Show an example or examples. And gives extra information
about the command. For this one it’s showing
a “Set Size” of 50% is half its normal size. 200% is twice its normal size. And 100% is its normal size. I’ll close the help window,
and I’m back to my normal scripts area. I’ll continue the overview of the Scratch window. The stage is a pretty boring,
plain white right now. I’ll go the backdrop area,
and select “choose backdrop from library”. Click on it. I can use the scroll bar to scroll
through the different backdrops that are available. I’ll select “stage1”. “Ok” … I could make changes to the backdrop
with Scratch’s graphics editor, but I’ll use it as it is. Costume 2 is currently selected.
Good. It looks like the cat’s floating above the stage.
I’ll bring the cat down onto the stage. I’ll go back to my program. “Scripts” … When I run this program,
it doesn’t appear theatrical enough. I’ll change the program. I’ll have the cat ask the question … “What’s my favorite color?”
[ Typing sounds ] I’ll change the two seconds to five. Click on the ‘2’. Press ‘5’.
[ Key click sound ] “Next Costume” is fine. I want to change the “Think”. I want to use another “Say”. Break these apart. Get rid of “Think”. Bring in the new “Say”. I’ll reattach the “Next Costume”. The cat’s answer …
Click on it … should be “Purrrr-ple”, of course. I’ll change the ‘2’ to a ‘3’, [ Key click sounds ] and the program’s ready to run. I’ll click on the green flag. The commands are running. “What’s my favorite color?” for 5 seconds. Costume will change. “Purr-ple” Costume changes back and it’s finished. I can change the cat’s color with “Change Color Effect”. The color effect goes from 0 to 200. I’ll make the changes smaller. Click on it.
Change “25” to “10. I’ll watch the cat’s color change
as I click on the block. Click on it 1 … 2 … 3 … Color’s changing.
4 … 5 … 6 … 7 … 8 … 9 … 10 … 11 … 12 … 13 … 14 …
Well, fourteen’s purple. 15 … 16 … 17 … 18 … 19 … 20 … And the cat’s back to its normal color. Now that I see how the color effect changes
I can use “Set Color Effect”. I was changing it by 10 and I clicked on it 14 times. 10 times 14 is 140. I’ll change this to 140.
[ Typing sounds ] I’ll run it now. The cat’s purple. Good enough. I’ll get rid of “Change Color Effect”, and I’ll attach “Set Color Effect”
but where should I attach it? I’ll try before the last costume change
in the block set. Pick it up. Drag it … Highlight … In between … Drop it in. Now I’ll run the program. I’ll click on the green flag. “What’s my favorite color?” “Purr-ple” Now it’s purple. Maybe it’d be better to change the color
before saying “Purr-ple”. Break the blocks out. Move the “Set” before the “Say” Reattach “Next Costume”. Now I’m back to my complete program. I’ll run again. “What’s my favorite color?” “Purr-ple” and the cat’s purple. That looks right. I’ll finish this introduction with the Main Menu Bar. In “Edit” … I have “Undelete” “Small Stage Layout” and “Turbo Mode”. “Turbo Mode” runs the program faster. I don’t need it now so I’ll skip it. I can try “Undelete”. “Undelete” returns the last block
or block set that was deleted. It returned the “Change Color Effect” that that I last deleted. If I try to “Undelete” again … I can’t. Only the last delete can be returned. I said “block set”. I’ll attach a couple blocks to this. A “Say” and a “Think” … Delete the block set. Go back to “Undelete”. I’ve got my block set back. “Undelete” can be very handy, but remember that it’s only the last block
or block set that was deleted. I’ll get rid of this. The last “Edit” menu entry to try is “Small Stage Layout”. I’ll select it. The stage is smaller. With a larger script area
I can make larger programs more easily. This can be handy. I’ll restore the stage area size. Back to “Edit”. Click on “Small Stage Layout” again. Back to the regular size. Notice that this left pointing triangle
shrinks the stage too. And the right pointing triangle restores it. Now the last pull down menu
where I can save and restore projects. I’m using the Offline Editor – not the Web Browser. I’ll show the web browser version in a little bit. I’ll use “Save As” to save on my computer. Go to my Scratch folder. Select the input area, and I’ll enter “Introduction”.
[ Typing sounds ] Good.
Save. It’s saved so I can start a new project now. “File” … “New Project”. I could start a new project, or if I like I could go back to my saved project. “File” … “Open” … “Scratch” …
“Introduction”. Double clicks. It’s now restored my saved project introduction, and I have my original program back. Now I’ll save a project with the web browser. I have an untitled project in Scratch. I’ve already logged onto the Scratch website. Scratch accounts are free
and projects can be saved for free there. I want something to save. I’ll get a “Move” and a couple “Turn”s. And I’ll add “When the green flag is clicked on”. Looks like a little program now. I’ll give it a title instead of “Untitled”. I’ll call it “Introduction”.
[Key typing sounds ] Use “File” … “Save now” … “Save now” is the same as the “Save now” button on the right. I’ll click on it. The project’s been saved. And “Saved now” has been changed to “Save”. I can look at my saved Scratch projects. Go to the folder. In “My Stuff” I have one project
that’s been saved on the Scratch website. I could go back to change the project, or I can look at information about the project. I’ll click here to see information about the project. The project’s title … I can add instructions. Some notes and credits. It’s unshared right now, and, if I wanted I to,
I could use this button to edit the project. I can share the project with others if I want to. I’ll click on “Share”. Now the project’s shared with users in the Scratch community. They can now see and copy my shared project. They can make changes to their copies,
but they can’t change my project. Anytime I want I can stop sharing the project. I’ll go to the Scratch folder and I’ll select “Unshare”. Now the project’s private again. From “My Stuff” I can select whatever project I want to edit. I have only one right now. I’ll use “See inside” to go to the editor. I could make more changes to this project. Go to “Looks” … I could add a “Think” for number 2.
[ Typing sounds ] If I save this now it’s saved as “Introduction”. I’ve lost my original version. Go back to the projects. I still have “Introduction”. It’s the latest one. If I want to make a bunch of changes … Go to “Looks” … add a couple “Thinks”, and I want to save this as a different project, I can use …
File … “Save as a copy” Now I have “Introduction copy” as my project title. Go to my list of projects. I have “Introduction” and “Introduction copy”. “Introduction” is the original with only the “Think #2” attached. “Introduction copy” is the newer version. It has the additional “Think”s. Changing the name here
doesn’t make another copy. It only changes the name. I clicked outside to make sure the change was made. Go back to my list. I have “Introduction” and “Introduction #2”. I’ll go back inside “Introduction #2” now. And finally a couple warnings. First, I find the performance with the browser
can be a little slow or unpredictable at times, especially if I’m having network problems. Also remember that when projects are saved with the web browser, they’re saved on the Scratch website –
not on your computer. I’m finished with this challenge. I encourage you to play with the example and get familiar with the Scratch window with creating programs and with saving programs. Try changing the program. Try some of the other command blocks. Try “Say” or “Think” without any time limits. Try the “Set Size” command. Or try the “Switch Costume” command. Remember that “Block Help” is available
for all of these commands. It gives the description, an animated example, and some additional information. But above all, have fun with the challenge. [ Theme music plays ]

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