Meet the Artist and Astronaut: Josh Simpson & Cady Coleman

you know I don't know what I'm gonna say to Josh and Katie when I'm gonna tell them no one showed up for their election well welcome to this evenings very special event that combines an artist and an astronaut who says that art and science don't go hand-in-hand actually to be precise I should say glass and space Josh and Katie's interests meet in exploration many of us at the museum are familiar with Joshua's working glass he is lectured here several times and must know him as the source of the museum's amazing 108 pound mega planet this beautiful glass world is on view in the museum's modern glass gallery I was a witness to its creation and I have to say I have seen a lot of glass being made but I will never forget that experience for those of you who don't know Josh and I'm sure there's maybe one or two he creates a range of vessels and sculptures in glass all of which in some way can be related to his love of the night sky space nature glass and glass history and I hope that a lot of you will see the display of his glass in our glass market it looks really beautiful it's nice to see a lot of work brought out my favorite project and one that I think is Josh's most important legacy is his infinity project which you will know doubtedly hear about tonight undoubtedly this is a worldwide activity requiring many helpers who hide Josh's small glass planets all over the earth from the highest mountains to the deepest oceans his planets have even orbited the earth because let's face it he has an in there I had monitor the Infinity project for its ambition its mystery its lunacy and it's poetry josh has been working with glass for over 40 years he has had numerous museum shows nationally and internationally and his work is owned by collectors and museums worldwide he has a long list of accomplishments but one that I think is especially important is his involvement with Cerf in 1985 he founded and was the first president of the Kraft emergency relief fund or Surf a national foundation dedicated to helping craft artists who have suffered a disaster that prevents them from making a living this nonprofit organization which is headquartered in Montpelier Vermont has helped many hundreds of artists especially after storms like Irene and Katrina Cerf also helped an artist whose documentary was presented here last month who is ginny ruffner josh is unique and always changing glass planets are representations in miniature of the huge planet that Katie Collman his astronaut wife has spent a career trying to get off of Katie loves to be in space I like the feeling of Earth under my feet Katie craves air a graduate of MIT in the University of Massachusetts where she received her doctorate in polymer science and engineering katie is a retired US Air Force colonel she joined NASA in 1992 so this year marks her 20th anniversary of working with outer space in order to serve on NASA's missions which are highly competitive katie has undergone all kinds of rigorous training including living in a capsule 300 feet underwater for several months she has logged more than 4,300 hours aboard the space shuttle Columbia and the International Space Station where she recently spent six months to be honest katie is not for the faint of heart I have been looking forward to Josh and Kay's presentation for weeks and I'm sure many of you have also so please let's welcome tonight's very accomplished artist and astronaut thank you we're gonna talk in turn and and I'm gonna go first because have you ever tried to go after an astronaut so I will just start my talk and then hand it over to you okay sounds good to me I mean if we like live together like every night every day we might actually have a talk where he did one slide and I did another one but we think we're actually doing pretty well to sort of be on the same stage Stan you're gonna be sitting over there right maybe because she makes faces and does all sorts of stuff that I don't want her behind me while I'm talking I have a microphone okay you're dead okay um can you can still hear me away from the mics okay I I don't know can i press this trying okay it'll become a live soon right yes no Scott if i press this can you make it okay I sometimes don't know what what it is or why glass is such held my attention for so long for 40 more than 40 years now what what is about this stuff that okay there's just a little lag here what what is it about this material is it is it the color or is it the heat Scott can I control these from here to without this thing I'm sorry you guys it's just or can it can it be made to go faster is that it's something I'm doing right I have to bite this no okay ah all right here we go so so what is it is it the fire is it the flame is it just the pure heat of this material glass is an alchemic blend of sand and metallic oxides combined with extraordinary blinding heat the result is a material that flows and drips like primordial lava it possesses an inner light and transcendent radiant heat it responds only to gravity and centrifugal force or centripetal force it's this transcendent radiant heat make it simultaneously one of the most fascinating materials to work with and one of the most outlandish ly frustrating materials for an artist to work with I and and I think that's what it is I think the fact that it is just so impossible to do this is what keeps me interested in it and the fact that when you actually make something that works it's so rewarding it's so incredible I took it as a good omen when I moved to this farm in Massachusetts in 1976 I took it as a good omen I found several handmade little marbles outside the kitchen door in the flower got beds and when I brought them in to my kitchen and wash them off they were just as bright and beautiful as the sunny afternoon they went missing maybe 70 years before and it actually made me think about the longevity of glass at that that that these little marbles could last so long under the earth made me think about the fact that glass in museums often arrived there not because of collectors but because it was dug up by archaeologists somewhere the other thing that happened when I moved to Shelburne was that one of the school teachers from the Franklin County school system asked me if I'd be willing to demonstrate glassmaking to all the eighth graders in the county it seemed like a kind of an easy thing to do only only I didn't realize that there were in fact zillions of eighth graders in Franklin County and I didn't advertently agreed to give a glass demonstration every Wednesday afternoon for the last week of January all of February March April May and the first week of June now I don't know if any of you have ever known an eighth grader these are people who will suffer no boredom whatsoever in their lives and so I'm by the way I'm just showing you scenes of my studio in my home this this there's tonight unfortunately it's rainy but tonight there's gonna be an Aurora that I think will be amazing but we see them relatively well not that often but from time to time at at any rate eighth graders were not even the slightest bit interested in me making wine goblets or vases or bottles or poles or platters it was boring and one night before they came the next day I was trying to think of what to do for them that would be entrancing or interesting and I thought about the Apollo program and and actually more specifically this photograph that the Apollo astronauts took on their way rounding the moon in 1969 and Jim Lovell looked out the triangular window of his spacecraft and said I can cover the earth with my thumb and of course you can if you're the right distance and the right perspective from our world that seemed so limitless and but at the time and in the 1970s I don't know I just thought it would be nice to make a little planet for these kids on marble essentially that they could hold in their hand so that's what I began to do and what's amazing about these objects is that they have the ability it's funny I've made them for a long time now and some of them are small and some of them are very complicated some they're large but one thing I've discovered is that they bring children love them but so do adults but so do adults that are they transcend culture and they transcend language and they transcend distance and and perhaps even they'll transcend time that they some of them will survive for hundreds of years or maybe longer it's the Josh Simpson sphere Museum but uh here's here's here's the Vermont studio pretty nice huh and I had two partners and because they were paying the bulk of the rent they were the heavy lifters in the in that they they got the tar paper Shack behind the studio I on the other hand I have some these are amazing that I have these old photos this is my teepee really a wonderful dwelling this is I started to make goblets somebody did this nice woodcut of me then and anyway so here's a examples of my early work two perfectly matched Ruby wine goblets you guys laugh but these were perfectly matched in my book I continued making goblets for another sixteen years maybe I've haven't made them for now 26 years and I wish I'd save some because on Sotheby's and on ebay they're worth a fortune these are modern photographs of older work and so this is what I was interested in doing the time I loved Frederick Carter and Steuben and and and of course those Tiffany but when I I actually have a one little all right these are close-ups of the landscapes on my planets but I want you to see this little little goblet this really actually affected my life in a big way it sits a little goblin din nobility East and I'll continue I'll tell the story of the Goblet but keep it in mind they found these little goblets all over the Middle East and but they were really little like tiny and nobody none of the archeologists could figure out what they were for were they for religious purposes were they used in services were they used for unguent or makeup or medical things no one really could figure it out this is the Brahmaputra River River about Valley in northern India and river valleys on my planet this is a river valley in the southwest of the United States and this is a little further afield this is on Mars and a dry planet surface on one of mine anyway archaeologists just could not figure out what they were and what what they were too small to drink out of and so it was dr. Brill Robert Brill who was in Herat Afghanistan in the 70s and he was either in the I've heard two stories one is that he was in the market place and saw these for sale but he later had a glassblower explained to him what they were for these are extinct volcanoes on a planet surface and you can see a row of geosynchronous communication satellites well it turned out it turned out that these little goblets were for water and birdseed in a birdcage and of course bird K birds were kept all through the Middle East and but the reed cages had long ago been lost or fallen apart but the the glass remained of course and thinking of that and thinking of these planets that I was making for kids and at the time when I began to make planets thinking about the fact that no museums no collectors no galleries had my work or were even vaguely interested in my work made me think that maybe if the archaeologists were my only hope that if I started to hide my planets somewhere or other that archeologists would find them and I'd I'd eventually get into a museum somewhere so this is where I hid my first planet on Cooper Lane Road near my house on my bike route in a Stonewall in that that planet is still there and then as I traveled further and further away from home I would bring plants with me and hide them so this is this is my now my this is with my 20 now 28 year old son Josiah we had just bought a bridge in San Francisco and we thought to commemorate it we put a planet at the foot and and but then as I began to be more refined in my hiding I began to think well if you want archaeologists to find things you should really go where archaeologists go and that is how planets ended up throughout neso in Central America and Mexico and but and then for a couple of years I had a project to put planets not in castles but in the moats around castles because that of course is where archeologists would likely go and another project to put put them in sacred places around the world not not just archaeological sites but but in Buddhist temples in Japan and other places and then I thought well what about industrial sites and so this is Bethlehem Steel this is hard to get through this fence than you would think and and then I started thinking about stone works and I found this don't work outside of Rome and I thought you know this would be a great place and who knows what it was used for but but I in this case I managed to balance a planet up on that high shelf and another stonework found this wall and and I put a planet or actually one of my neighbors put planets on either side of this wall just to cover both our bases both the Mongols and the Chinese and I love this photo because Jane Spillman brought this I brought a planet with her she's actually not to single anyone out but you have been a dedicated infinity planet person for a while Jane took one to the Taj and and and then as more and more friends would travel I'd say could you carry your planet with you and so some of them are left in plain sight as this one is at the mouth of the Horton river overlooking the Arctic Ocean or in caves or this has always been a thing to get a planet on the summit of Mount Everest but turns out most of the people that go there like cut off the ends of their toothbrushes they don't want to carry a lot of weight up that hill for some reason so but I did get somebody to take one to the base camp of Everest but it in 2000 I put the infinity checked on my website and that has resulted in things getting pretty crazy at times these are a bunch of kids in Guatemala and people taking hiking up Mount Fuji and oh this is ambassador karel van Vorst Iceland ambassador Iceland she and Katie and Jamie are throwing and planet in you can see it about to hit the confluence between the American and European tectonic plates in Iceland and since I've had the diplomatic corps completely involved in this at different times this is ambassador jean christie who was in the South China Sea diving and put this on the wreck of a ship that went down in World War two and and of course the Alvin has the Woods Hole Oceanographic people have this great submarine called the Alvin you can see the planet in Alvin's basket and at under the in the Azores can you pick it out they often will break off part of a volcanic vent or something and bring that back to me as a sort of a trade it's nice now I admit I admit that some of these planets some of these planets are not going to be found right away but you know it there's no reason why that shouldn't be there a long time hints so alright so Jane was taking a planet with her to Greece and I don't know if any of you again not to single someone out but you are the most unlucky traveler and and so so I never did have a planet put in the Aegean Sea and so Jane had some planets with her on the sea diamond and somehow it struck something and they got they got the passengers off but not their luggage and so you know it was kind of a loss for the seat but it was a I uh I got my planets on the bottom of the Aegean so another another ship this is a US icebreaker that went to the North Pole they took they had a little ceremony at the back the ship and drop planets into the water but they also left one on the ice and not to not I mean you can't it would unbalance things not to have a planet in on in Antarctica and so there's one in the trans and to Kirk transact Antarctic mountains at 12,500 feet above sea level and Ernest Shackleton the arctic explorer this is his grave on South Georgia island and I thought it would be fun these monkeys were in a fort in wooden D India they played with this for quite a while I did not hide this this was somebody else who took this and but I'll show you as sort of a not a totally typical hiding place but there's a river in Colorado and and it goes through Arizona and they it goes it's eventually cut a channel through the earth and they call this the Grand Canyon and it is not for its it's really an amazing place but climbing up the side of this is is you kind of get partway up and you kind of go is it really worth hiding this planet because you're kind of out on this little shelf and you slip and it's not good but I was trying to reach an honest Ossie granary and and so I got up there and it doesn't have any grain in it anymore but it does have a planet of course it's always been always had a thing for the Air Force and this is actually a b-1 bomber and I got on the plane with a planet but somehow I had lost it and of course I have I love the space program and I thought it would be great to hide them in great moon rockets in Florida and in Texas and so they are in the I'm not telling you which nozzle they're in but they're in one of the nozzles there and of course this this was really a challenge this was harder than you think except because especially if you noticed carefully to the right of the American flag on the roof okay these people are not friendly to people jumping the fence and so I went through a bit of a hard time because I got invited by I had been part of the art in embassy program of the State Department for many years 30 years and the Bush's invited me to a brunch at the White House and so I there and just tried to deal with sort of like all of my moral political everything versus free food and as an artist it's it's really you know the free free food one and and so I ended up at the White House now still you're in the White House now and I've got a planet with me but it's still a long road to hoe here because there's Secret Service guys all over the place but I had a friend who was with me on this trip who distracted the Secret Service guys chatting with them chatting him up and so keep an eye in between the two columns in the state dining room and so and and my next most difficult project was a Castel Gandolfo is the summer palace of the Pope and so Katie and I were invited to meet the Pope and so again I didn't I was really I had high expectations because I mean how often do you get to meet the Pope it's pretty rare and so I didn't I didn't know what I was really kind of thinking this this could be a transcendent amazing experience for me but then as I as I got closer and closer we went through chamber after chamber with Swiss Guards and these guys have Pikes and swords and all kinds of stuff and I and I kept thinking you know what if I actually meet the Pope and he puts out his hand to shake my hand and what if my hand starts to burn and shrivel and in which case it would have proven my mother correct for all those years and at any rate I I did meet the Pope and it was marvelous and and again it was one of those things where I couldn't find the planet I had anyway so we left one there learning how to fly has greatly enhanced my ability to hide planets I put a window in the plane and and you guys left but you know did you ever try to break a marble when you were a kid they are pretty tough so I try not to drop them on populated areas and but I'm flying up actually a friends playing at the funda Nui River in New Zealand on the North Island of New Zealand dropping planets in the river and then it came to me if you want your glass to be in museums hide your glass in museums I don't know why it took 30 years to figure that out but I mean forget the archeologist and you know so so this is not a totally typical hiding but on a Sunday morning I hid a planet outside this office and wouldn't you know that that the director at the time Dave dr. David Whitehouse well I don't know if you guys know this but he's an archaeologist so this planet was excavated at the Museum and identified as the work of Josh Simpson it is one of thousands of planets that Simpson has placed around the globe anyway I thought I'd show you I thought I'd show you some pictures of my work that the current work this is actually in collaboration with a German artist Gabriella Winston er and this was a piece I did in collaboration with Steuben and a tektite piece and a copper basket piece actually I'm trying to speed up a little bit but I this I have a solemn art names that I give these pieces and so I thought I'd tell you the name of this piece it's called when I die I want to go quietly in my sleep the way my grandfather did not screaming like all the passengers in his car my latest work has been to work with colloidal silver glasses to make plates and other objects that I think look a little bit like Hubble Space Telescope imagery and these are really fun and really frustrating to do because it it's it's really I'm trying to mimic 14th or 15th century Italian chalcedony a glass and but it's more tricky than one would imagine this is actually a Hubble Space Telescope photo and picture of a planet I just I wanted to show you this photo of my glass making crew just to acknowledge the fact that nothing that I do is possible without a team effort my whole studio helps and so Ric and Jeff and Alex and in this case air and are just immeasurably important I also wanted to introduce you to my family this is my youngest son Jamie he was four days old and I felt it was important to take him on a tractor ride here he is a little bit older maybe four or five jumping in the leaves torturing our cat Fang and now he's 11 and in fifth grade and and a race car driver this thing goes faster than you would think and my wife Katie who in 1992 applied for what was an impossible dream and who could have ever thought that out of 2,700 applicants that they would choose three women for the class of 1992 Katie got to fly the space shuttle Columbia on a 16-day mission in 1995 STS 73 and then made a second space shuttle flight in 1999 STS 93 where she was in charge of launching the Chandra x-ray Observatory and actually that was in a nursing flight because the first female commander of a shuttle Eileen Collins was Katie's commander for that flight and I mean said to say hi to everybody I saw her just days ago and so Katie's third spaceflight was in December of 2010 she got to fly on a Russian Soyuz spacecraft to the International Space Station with the rush with with the Russians I saw this picture and they did a crew picture and which you can recognize actually in the background you may see the Mars a lunar lander or you may see the space station in the sky above this but once NASA legal got ahold of this photo it became that but anyway I like that so I think if yes okay so this is a little video part way through this those were Katie's mission patches Katie got ready for this flight for probably three years before and during that time Jamie and I also got ready Katie worked in in Russia and in Germany and in Japan in Canada in Houston and would spend an occasional day in Massachusetts when she had a moment but she did training in the Evie a suit and where they make her neutral neutrally buoyant she floats and practices she gets to sign her dormitory she was blessed by a priest who must have loved her because he soaked her with holy water and so we were right there in in Kazakhstan in December this is even colder than Corning if you can imagine that and watch what little legs try to match up with big legs Katie's trying to watch anything so they got on this rocket and and Jamie and I watched from in the US to have to be three and a half miles away we were about 3,200 feet from this rocket it's pretty amazing so it took off and it was so nice once Katie reached orbit because Jamie and I knew exactly where she was so we're gonna switch over and I'll tell you about Space Launch it only takes eight and a half minutes and then about two days to dock with the space station and then you're living in space on the space station and this is my favorite scene even though it shows my rear end and that is that it's not about floating around in space it's about flying from place to place and living in a place where flying is just a way of life this is our Japanese supply ship and it is flying right next to us we are both of the space station and the supply ship going 17,500 miles an hour that's the play ship but was actually up on the space station during the Japanese tsunami and so we actually made origami at their request for that represents hope and rebuilding for the Japanese people it was a really sort of special and actually tough time to be up there when a lot of our friends in Japan were under really tough circumstances we were known as a mission that had a number of comings and goings supply ships three Russian supply ships a European supply ship a Japanese supply ship and a space station so the space station is taking video of us and we are taking video of a space station and photographs too it was probably the most nervous I was during the whole mission they actually do sort of a pirouette and show us the belly of the space station we're inspecting the heat shield and we take a series of very carefully choreographed photographs to understand the integrity of that heat shield and and basically if you mess up the photographs you have to take them you can't really take them again we have to inspect the bottom of the space station with the robotic arm and it takes a whole day to do that so we're just you know concern to take the right photographs but everything came out right that module right there the one it looks just like this one they're bringing the new in the new and last piece of the International Space Station so we're right inside there as the Space Shuttle docks and you can actually kind of feel a little funk funk and now all of us are inside the space station our crew of six along with six are in this case seven people on the space shuttle this is a space shuttle Discovery that was my friend Nicole and they're out doing spacewalks we're all actually doing work inside the space station outside the space station that new module was picked up by the robotic arm of the space station and put on to the space attached to the space station and then installed this is our new robot that is up on the space station right now affectionately known as Robonaut he's the one on the left that's Scott Kelly on the right you'll meet him in a minute and then we're just cruising through the space station and you'll you'll see a little bit more of this kind of footage of just I want you to see how big it is this is about eight train cars all put together and they each have hatches in between you can see a hatch right in back of me as I'm cutting Deemas hair there and there is dima and paulo and i notice that our lunch table dinner breakfast all the same thing is not horizontal when you think about it up in space nothing is going to stay on that table anyway everything is going to float away unless it's velcroed down or even taped down or Bunji Bunji down and so let's see is this are we on the sky it's got let's see am i doing these on the I'm doing these down here okay there we go so I was really interesting to me everybody on a crew is different and we all bring different strengths and different weaknesses to the team when we got up there we go up in groups of three in that tiny tiny Soyuz capsule and when we got there we meaning Paolo Paolo Nespoli from Italy dmitry kondratyev from russia and myself when we got there scott kelly sasha Clary and oleg skripochka were already there and they'd already been there for about two months they'd stay up there another four months and then they leave they land up back here on the earth and we stay up there a little while alone and then a new crew joins us and again we'll be a crew of six and Scott may actually look familiar to him to you his twin brother identical twin brother Mark Kelly is also a is also an astronaut and he was on one of the next space shuttle missions that came up to visit us after Scott had landed Mark Kelly is married to Gabrielle Giffords who was actually injured while we were up there and so here's our new crew of six and you'll see we've been joined by new folks this is Ron Garan Sasha samokutyaev and andrey borisenko from russia so on the space station usually three Russians and three what we call us OS meaning the United States operating segment that doesn't mean all Americans the u.s. segment is actually made up of our partners from Japan from Europe from Canada all together 16 countries including Russia make up the international space station and you see the flags on the bottom part of that picture and so on our particular mission we had Paola from Italy in my talk you're gonna see a mixture of crews not just the ones the folks that I was up there with but sometimes other folks have video that I like to show and so you'll see actually some of our Japanese crew members and folks from other countries and I like to show you this one for two reasons first I have a very convincing husband I think you might notice what's in the middle of the screen here so this is my training on the Black Sea we're doing water survival training because what if that capsule doesn't land where it's supposed to and and we realized that we need a little rescuing and so this is nikolai and sasha and i and that is the reason i have it in there is that is how close we sit in that so i use it is really really really tiny now this picture shows all of us excited about going to space and I show you this picture not to make fun of Dima because obviously he's the one who's sort of not smiling and looking like he'd rather be anywhere else but because this is a picture of Dima excited about going to space and it's it's very traditional for a traditional cosmonaut which he is that in photographs and official photographs not to smile so for Paolo and I to be you know egging him on saying come on Dima smile it's just not you know his way and and it just wouldn't be I mean so we had to figure out oh this is what Dima looks like when he's excited so it's an international crew it's a crew of six people and I would say then anybody who is either part of a family married has a sweetheart or works with more than one other person knows what it's like to be part of a crew and all of us have to when we have a job as big as ours I mean it doesn't really matter what whether we like each other or would like to be up there we don't get to pick our friends to be on our crew we really just have to make the best of it and figure out what people bring to the team so that we can accomplish the mission which is usually a pretty big mission in our case we had the first Japanese supply ship excuse me the second Japanese supply ship ever to come to the space station and we're gonna grapple it actually I'm at the controls and Palin Nespoli is judging distances and we're doing it as a team so we're gonna grab that with the space station robotic arm and it looked small in that picture but in this picture you can tell it is big it is one big thing we did a lot of robotics operations I'm somebody who's sort of maybe known for robotics or at least has done a lot of it back there at the Johnson Space Center and so it was really great for me to go from you know being in charge of robotics for the astronaut office without having actually you know gotten to operate the arm to operating all the arms on the space station I was just in heaven we also do spacewalks in our particular case the space shuttle astronauts did the spacewalks we just wished for something to break outside where we would have to go out and fix it but know one night we did actually a very good alarm where it went off in the middle of the night we all flew down to the main computer looked at the computer screen and Scot looked up and he says yes it's a box out on s0 we're gonna have to go turns out being NASA we always think what if this happens what if this happens what if that happens we had a spare box out on s0 and all they had to do was reroute the data and the power no fun no spacewalk but a lot of different kinds of adventures I showed this picture to the kids today to have them realize that I grew up not knowing how to use tools and I learned how to use tools when I was you know in my late 40s and it turns out using tools not that hard fixing things not that hard I mean my in my family we always just called people and they came over and they fix things but on the space station that's a problem and so it turns out if you follow the directions gentlemen it's just not that hard you'll notice my I always I think having the right accessories is really important you'll notice my nuts and bolts earrings for fixing things and we do a lot of science experiments up there I'm just gonna run through really quickly to just kind of give you a taste of why we might go up there I mean this is me doing a fluids experiment you know down here on the ground we don't get to understand what do liquids really want to do because gravity is this overwhelming force and there's a lot of really tiny small forces like surface tension that effect them very much and it affects a lot of important processes like well extracting oil out of the ground is going to be an you know all those forces at the interface that the oil in the ground are important there's fluid in our body we have we have pipes in our body flow through at any anything that is made using flow through a pipe is gonna be affected by these small forces that are difficult to measure and are often sort of a fudge factor in equations but up in space without gravity they become the dominant force and we can really learn a lot about them this is just a little a little film that's going to show you just a little bit about the science that we do up there this is some shear viscosity experiment so we're having these big streams of liquid which would be falling on the ground here on earth but up in space they're actually liquid we have a high temperature furnaces where we grow semiconductor crystals different kinds of alloys this is Satoshi with a freezer we do restore a lot of biological samples those samples usually come from us we we are looking at our own health partly because we'd like to understand what happens to people up in space and we want to understand how to keep people safe on a longer mission and further away like up to Mars but also because those lessons come straight back to earth our hearts actually degrade in a certain way that is very similar to aging and yet we'll have very sort of normal medical histories and those effects happen fast so they're easy to mess it measure on the same with osteoporosis see what else we've got here this is Scott working on one of the experiments so just a lot of different a lot of different things from all the different countries this one's from Japan and this is Paulo doing an experiment understanding how the brain really works in a microgravity kind of environment now we can grow crystals that are more perfect up there you'll noticed on the left is the sort of ugly earth crystal and on the right is the beautiful space crystal being able to grow things more perfectly up there gives us a supply of crystals back here on the earth to do things like protein crystallography which is used to understand the structure of proteins to then do drug design this is a really cool combustion experiment you'll notice the flame is round isn't that cool but this is this is the the cool part is you have to come so we think the flame is done we think burning is done and we understand combustion and now this bright glow here was totally unexpected and they're still trying to understand when they thought all the fuel was depleted and they thought they understood the combustion process what is burning now so there's things that we can understand especially with combustion the measurements that we can make and we have to make in less than a second down here on the earth we can actually make those measurements over 30 or 40 seconds up in space because it's a less dynamic process up there down here with that candle flame shape it's caused by those light gases those products actually rising like a hot air balloon down here on the earth and then new fuel is coming in it's a very dynamic you know this is coming in this is going out it's hard to measure whereas in space where that happens a little sphere like that and new fuel is not rushing in we can understand more about combustion and more about how to burn things differently different aspects of pollution different aspects of even metal alloys trying to in trying to understand if we mix two different things together if one of them is heavier than the other these these little granules here are heavier where they go let's see these are heavy on earth it's gonna look like this but in space it could be evenly distributed we're not gonna have a factory up in space anytime soon but we can't understand what if we can make these kinds of materials bring them back to earth understand the properties and understand whether these are worthy goals for even our place learning – you're like Corning which I really I think great Rd program and it's continued to have one despite tough economic times some of the things some of the things that happen up on a space station come back to earth in different ways the water processing system turns out to be very useful for processing water in places where they don't have clean water maybe in emergencies like hurricanes and other natural disasters and in also just in places where there's not enough clean water this is a this is a an astronomical instrument that's on the outside of the space station and this is a picture but it's actually based on the interpretation of this data here basically in space astronomers were looking nothing was happening in this particular place and then a black hole swallowed a star this is a star being ingested by a black hole and as a jet is streaming out and that's actually what the kind of data they get from the difference between these two pictures not happening here and star being ingested there that's really pretty pretty neat stuff we do a lot of human experimentation I mean nothing bad but just understanding what happens to us where were human guinea pigs we get to volunteer for those things but we do a lot of volunteering one of my favorite examples is osteoporosis in that it's something that affects many many women in up in space it turns out we lose bone at the rate of ten times the rate that a woman who is 70 years old and has osteoporosis does so what she loses in a year I lose in a month up there in terms of bone and muscle so what happens really fast and that's the bad news the good news is that it's really measurable and that we can do some really interesting experiments about nutrition and about exercise to understand what are ways that we can prevent this kind of bone loss and I can't speak for other people's data but for my for myself this is a new exercise machine that we have up there that allows us to do a really large range in motion for exercise and we've got a treadmill we have a bike doing those things and also taking a drug that's commonly used for osteoporosis I came back with the same amount of bone that I left with it's a phenomenal result now that doesn't mean we're ready to publish papers the problem with space research is that and meaning the number of samples is usually quite low but we're certainly I think at least on a pretty hopeful track and it's pretty interesting data um it doesn't mean that my bones are actually the same we'll go on a little tour here while I explain but first let me just before we do that I'll just show you this is our treadmill it doesn't look like the treadmill until we turn sideways now it looks like the treadmill so here in node 3 this is where we do a lot of the basic things that we need to do these are the bungee cords they're gonna hold you on that treadmill and this is the place you're gonna run this is the TV you're gonna watch because you're gonna do this for about an hour every day and it's really helpful to have something to do this of course is the bathroom it's our outhouse and now we're gonna look in the bathroom it's gonna look bad in there get ready look at that this is an engineering feat now we do in this case have the bathroom taken apart okay and just dismantled because we're replacing a bunch of different parts Josh actually got me a position as a ski lift mechanic once that I came home sand and when I'm not allowed to call the plumber or the electrician now that I'm home but this is the bathroom a pretty complicated engineering marvel completely necessary when that thing breaks which it does then everything stops and we fix it now we're coming to the weightlifting machine and the weights of course are not heavy and we could have to turn upside down for that to make some sense so this is the place we're going to stand but it doesn't really make sense until you turn head around and realized that now we're gonna stand on this platform and then we're gonna use this bar to lift weights it's actually a resistance based system and then right above our heads in the most ideal place imaginable for weight lifting they're gonna look up up up up up and you're gonna see the cupola module so this is where we go to look out the window from the space station now we used to only have literally portals these are windows where you're looking in the world just kind of goes by but now we have a cupola module where the windows are actually on all sides and on the top it feels like the top but actually this is on the bottom of the space station facing the earth and so all of those are windows and that is our view and it's just simply simply amazing so those are clouds and ocean there's a lot of clouds in ocean okay that's a little atoll right there and it makes me a little homesick really just to see this you can see it's pretty challenging light it's actually very bright out when it's sunny so there's the earth and we're gonna take a little spin around you can see some of our robotics there and I think you got a feel for what it's like I'm just adjusting the camera so it's not so bright out you get a feel for what it really looks like when we look out which you know we go around the earth every hour and a half so 45 minutes of daylight 45 minutes of Sun these are our solar arrays collecting energy our radiators those white things are rejecting heat and you're gonna see our rescue vehi 500 Internal Server Error

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