Genome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9

Genome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9


[MUSICAL INTRO] [MUSIC PLAYING] SPEAKER: Every cell in our body
contains a copy of our genome, over 20,000 genes, 3
billion letters of DNA. DNA consists of two strands,
twisted into a double helix and held together by
a simple pairing rule. A pairs with T, and G
pairs with C. Our genes shape who we are as
individuals and as a species. Genes also have profound
effects on health, and thanks to advances
in DNA sequencing, researchers have identified
thousands of genes that affect our risk of disease. To understand how
genes work, researchers need ways to control them. Changing genes in living
cells is not easy, but recently a new
method has been developed that promises to
dramatically improve our ability to edit the DNA of
any species, including humans. The CRISPR method is based on a
natural system used by bacteria to protect themselves
from infection by viruses. When the bacterium detects
the presence of virus DNA, it produces two types of
short RNA, one of which contains a sequence that matches
that of the invading virus. These two RNAs form a complex
with a protein called Cas9. Cas9 is a nuclease, a type
of enzyme that can cut DNA. When the matching sequence,
known as a guide RNA, finds its target within
the viral genome, the Cas9 cuts the target
DNA, disabling the virus. Over the past few years,
researchers studying the system realize that it
could be engineered to cut not just viral DNA but
any DNA sequence at a precisely chosen location by changing the
guide RNA to match the target. And this can be done
not just in a test tube, but also within the
nucleus of a living cell. Once inside the nucleus,
the resulting complex will lock onto a short
sequence known as the PAM. The Cas9 will unzip the DNA
and match it to its target RNA. If the match is
complete, the Cas9 will use two tiny molecular
scissors to cut the DNA. When this happens, the cell
tries to repair the cut, but the repair process
is error prone, leading to mutations that
can disable the gene, allowing researchers to
understand its function. These mutations are random,
but sometimes researchers need to be more
precise, for example, by replacing a mutant
gene with a healthy copy. This can be done by adding
another piece of DNA that carries the desired sequence. Once the CRISPR
system has made a cut, this DNA template can
pair up with the cut ends, recombining and replacing
the original sequence with the new version. All this can be done
in cultured cells, including stem cells
that can give rise to many different cell types. It can also be done in a
fertilized egg, allowing the creation of
transgenic animals with targeted mutations. And unlike previous
methods, CRISPR can be used to target
many genes at once, a big advantage for studying
complex human diseases that are caused not by
a single mutation, but by many genes
acting together. These methods are being
improved rapidly and will have many applications
in basic research, in drug development,
in agriculture, and, perhaps eventually,
for treating human patients with genetic disease. [MUSIC PLAYING]

100 thoughts on “Genome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9”

  1. Best video to understand this complex idea. Kudos to the two ladies who engineered this. And kudos to you for explaining so well.

  2. Fall out of gene editing could be horrible. Another Hitler or government would desire for " superior race". Private sector preying on a parent's desire to crete a perfect child.

  3. Knives can kill & can heal surgically, it's not knives to blame. I encourage such uploads. Thanks & best regards.

  4. Heal CRISPR spinocerebellar ataxia sca
    An/ sca 1, from Ukraine ,2 -dna analysis (Poland Russia) 41 y.
    agree on research https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CRISPR donations- www.ataxia.ho.ua

  5. This is the omen of Mystery Babylon final days. To blemish the original genome in the pretext of cure. Good for you, you are fulfilling prophecy written thousands of years ago.

  6. I would like to ask does every gene has a pam sequence that helps the Crispr/Cas9 system to get attached to the DNA?

  7. This man used CRISPR to edit his genes and make him look beautiful, Models hate him!

    CLICK HERE TO LEARN MORE

  8. I go 2baby with cf i seen video but leeds cf unit never tell us that they faind somthing to replec the gean its thru video if is then my be i m the one who most pls who faound no one no how bad this illnese is its ruin my and my kids life

  9. Let it be used for disease but also to enhance lifespan, health, and brain and bodily functions to new levels of development.

  10. This is the kind of technology people will use to create soldiers with for World War III. Welcome future.

    I'm against it.

  11. Why does the enzyme only cut at one side of the gene. If you want the gene out you have to cut at both sides right? Anyone who knows how the mechanism of the cut?

  12. How long will it be before it becomes available for the public help cure cancer HIV please let me know at Larry price 1961 at gmail.com thank you very much for your time and trouble I hope you respond back to me thank you Larry

  13. Please help me for a CRISPR -project :homozygous or heterozygous of a point mutation of a certain gene – involve different approaches ?

  14. Muito bom, porem vai gerar muita discussão. Tem o lado da Ética, oque é certo, oque é errado? Uma técnica valiosa, mas temos outras Instituições no meio disso tudo, Religião é uma delas.

  15. Some of these comments are from rather ignorant people. Obviously these people don't have children dying of a genetic disease. Leslie, I agree whole heartedly!

  16. I think what a lot of people fail to consider is, that we need pain in order to truly feel joy. And I'm not by any means trying to imply that those with genetic disorder should live with that pain, but for the rest of you saying that you can't wait to eliminate feelings of pain, unhappiness, etc: stop being naive- emotions are not something you can just eliminate. But let's imagine.

    Okay, so we've gotten rid of all the feelings we currently think of as negative: pain, grief, unhappiness. Now we just have various levels of positive feelings, from satisfied to happy to ecstatic. Then your "lowest level" so to speak would be that least positive feeling on the spectrum. Sure, it's not painful by any means. But nothing is painful! This is now the worst possible feeling you could ever had- how can it still be positive?

    Not to mention, if we didn't feel pain then we'd probably self destruct, because the feeling of pain is a warning.

  17. The big scientific and financial breakthrough of CRISPR/Cas9 will be when scientists succeed to cure one of the most common virus in humans which is HSV1 also called the common HERPES virus. 85 % of the world population is infected with this virus, responsible for many diseases such as Alzheimer, cardio vascular diseases, cancer, STD…. Imagine : 5 billion potential customers and lets say a treatment costs $5000. That would be a potential market turnover of $25.000.000.000.000 !!! That's why scientists are rushing to hack the Herpes virus !

  18. From what i know currently, the Dna starts and ends with Adenine. So Adenine leaves one side of the heart to travel through the pulmonary artery to the lungs to grab the O-molecules that u inhale and releases the Carbon Dioxide and then travels back to the other side of the heart as Guanine (O-Rich Adenine) for Oxidation and polymerization to occur properly. And drinking and soaking in water at PH level 7.0 to 7.4 is the healthiest way to get your O-molecules absorbed. Bc if not it throws off your PH level, acidity level, and salinity level in the body which can then throw off everything else. Take for instance the acidity level a nitrogenous base gene can be at before decomposition occurs.

  19. This gives me hope that perhaps one day I could be cured of my disease. If any religious freaks get in the way of this research, we’ll… it just better not happen.

  20. One of the best informational videos on CRISPR CAS-9 genome editing that is out there! Keep up the good work!

  21. If this isn't proof that movies like Jupiter Ascending are actually disclosures/documentaries, than I don't know what is.

  22. This technology Will be used against every human who accepts the mark of the Beast. It will Genetically modify human DNA and remove your salvation, because you will no longer be made in Gods image

  23. I was trying to understand what CRISPR is. It's really mind blowing that things like this are possible. Great explanation.

  24. Good luck with that . It's still a very primitive kill and destroy approach , better suited for the 19th Century , Captain Ahab and Moby Dick . Better to communicate with the virus . A Virus needs love as much as anyone else .

  25. One mistake or sloppy application and you can imagine a patient is doomed to a possibly mutation which can cause unintended consequences.

  26. If there is a Genetic Memory of the 3 missing regenerative functions. We could eventually grow those back as renewed functions from Stem Cells.

    1. Stem cell regenerative organ function
    2. DNA RNA regenerative workercell function.
    3. Cellulair Tissue Regenerative fluid or antioxidative oil producing function.

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