Curator’s Perspective Postcards of the Wiener Werkstätte

Curator’s Perspective Postcards of the Wiener Werkstätte


thank you Megan for that lovely and generous introduction I’m
really pleased to be with everyone here today and it’s really been a fantastic and productive
week here in Nashville working on the installation of the Wiener Wekstatte postcards exhibition. I’ve greatly enjoyed my time spent working alongside various colleagues here at The Frist and would like to extend a
special thanks, um, first and foremost to the Director,
Susan Edwards, who had the foresight to reach out to us and the Leonard Lauder office to work
on this collaboration together. To everyone on the curatorial side, Mark
Scala, Trinita Kennedy and Katie Delmez. Um, on the registrarial and exhibitions team we had the great pleasure working
closely with Richard Feaster, Scott Tome, Michael Brickner on and certainly my other curatorial
colleague, Silvia Barisione and Linda Clich, it’s always a pleasure
to work with you both and I have enjoyed all of our time collaborating. And
finally there have been so many other people
here at The Frist who’ve made our visit very hospitable and gracious. It certainly speaks to the
southern hospitality that I feel so proud of as a native
southerner myself. So thank you to everyone who I did not
mention but has been part of this wonderful collaboration. So as Megan said, my talk accompanies the exhibition opening
today to the public, Postcards of the Wiener Werkstatte. And the Wiener Werkstatte, or Vienna workshops was an arts and crafts collaborative that
existed from 1903 until 1932. And as many have already commented it is
quite fitting that it exhibition on postcards is being held in this wonderful Art Deco
building, the former main post office for Nashville. The Wiener Wekstatte ironically went
bankrupt just at the same time that this building was being made, um, the workshops closed sadly in 1932 after their nearly thirty years
existence, so there is some sort of irony I think that they were ending just
as this incredible space was going up. I will begin by briefly examining where and
when postcards originated in all set the stage by
briefly looking at the austro-hungarian empire in fun to see if the Vienna this
polyglot empire in fact was teeming with cultural talent
and gave rise to a true Renaissance in many fields certainly
loss of the sciences arts architecture and design and it
provided the ideal setting for the rise radical modern movement that was fully
embodied in the birth to Vienna Secession and shortly thereafter the never cheated
itself postcards were produced by the University for nearly a dozen years improved to be one of the
most popular products that they created they were affordable exemplars up design
and truly suitable for any occasion and I will I’m give you kind of a quick
survey at the wide variety of subjects that they covered and also discuss some the artist behind
these inventive designs almost 150 years ago the first widely
circulated postcard was issued by the austro-hungarian empire it
was dubbed the correspondents Carter and it was basically a letter telegram
the words correspondents Carter you can see at the top were printed
above the implement the Empire the double-headed Eagle on a very thin piece cream
cardstock that measured in half by 12 points to centimeters very close to the three
and a half by five inch size that we are accustomed to
today in space was provided here on the card beneath that name and the
emblem for the address of the recipient conveniently these cards came pre
stamped with the necessary postage to kreitzer and the stamping featured the headed the
in performance yourself they’re still up the card had blank
space where a message on could be written and also
with the short notice releasing the post office for from our responsibility for the contents
contained therein suspect it was added by the legal
counsel on the correspondents card in fact proved
to be wildly successful with an estimated nine million carts all
the first year alone and it was hailed as a triumph of
democracy really because it brought postal services within the reach up the masses by dramatically reducing
the cost of postage and also by ensuring a uniform rate just
as the poster rates today cost to male letter card previously
would have been determined by the distance it was being sent and by its weight on and has been has
has been mentioned in some other tours that have taken place in conjunction
with the show the Spurs cards had no decoration other
than that emblem so they were very plain this slide I think need to no explanation but
really to try to provide a context for you know what the postcard was thought
about when it was first created I’m it’s very much like a text message
that you might send to a friend on the family member on or like any sort
of social media missives so a post on Facebook Instagram
Twitter these were swift and concise ways to
communicate and share information and this is how postcards for in
initially received and accepted Austrian economists Emanuel
herrmann is widely credited with inventing the
postcard he studied law at the University CNN so I told you there was a lawyer
involved in this equation and after graduation he injured civil
service career working as a professor economics at Vienna’s Institute of
Technology in January 1869 e publishing article industry’s leading newspaper
clipping do is try oppressor or the GNU Free Press where he
recommended that all envelope size cards with 20 were to last so again like it
tweet almost should only cost two Kritzer and regular
letter posted at this time was by Petes or so that meant it was less than half what it would have cost for a typical
letter he argued the Rebbe economic advantages to releasing such
occurred and essentially the austro-hungarian
Postmaster General agreed with him embrace the idea and by
October it that you the first correspondence cards were
produced by the austro-hungarian empire they could be delivered anywhere within
the Empire irrespective distance for that to crater
price and after not too long to 20 work
minimum was dropped now I should mention that herman’s role
as the in Ventura postcard has been contested
by Sun there were proposals in other countries
such as Germany to offer a postcard type mail service prior to this time and in fact privately printed postcards
had been in circulation since at least the eighteen sixties and
some might even point2 early examples in France from the Lee
eighteenth-century but these were typically produced by
businesses as means advertisement but what hair make it
certainly be credit for is the notion that a government should releases cards
at a standard size and with the pre-printed postage
incorporated therein a clearly austro-hungarian government
thought that he had a seminal role in the suspension is it released this
Jubilee card on the twenty-fifth anniversary up the
release of the correspondents card sure their I’m new here meant article and the
release of these first government issue cards had white reaching and quick ripple
effects in Great Britain to on magazines the
journal arts and the manufacturing builder very soon after this article research was
released covered this new postage style writing and here I quote the
Austrian government has introduced a novelty in postage which might be
introduced with great benefit in all countries the object is to enable persons to send
off with the least possible trouble messages small importance with out the
trouble obtaining papers pens in envelopes cards a fixed
size are sold it all place post offices for only two kreitzer one
sighting for the address the other for the note which may be
written either in Inc or with any kind of pencil these are
thrown into a box and delivered without loops half penny
post this kind would certainly be very
convenient especially large towns an amended business carrying a few such
cards is pocketbook would find that very
useful there is an additional advantage attaching to the car day without it
having the address in postmark inseparably affixed to the note into
quote by 1870 and just as the journalist had urged in fact postcards were available
in various parts of Germany but without the prefix stamp in Britain and Switzerland by 1871 other countries have followed
suit including Belgium the Netherlands Denmark Sweden Norway
and Canada and by the mid eighteen seventies many
other countries have jumped on including Russia Chile France Algeria
Spain serbia media and Italy now the US was also in early adopter postcard as early as February 1861 the US
Congress permitted mailing privately printed cards that
Wade one accounts for less for up to fifteen hundred miles for only
one cent and larger distances required to censor postage so being very entrepreneurial
society John Carlton obtained copyright and
sensing an opportunity to produce privately printed postcards
but he soon sold that copyright to on HP litman who began producing and
selling postal cards and you can see an example
of that at the top which he called whitman’s
postal cards these were non pictorial in postage did have to be added by the
sender many do you consider let me to be the father of the modern postcard
because he predates manual herrmann by eight years but really
regardless of who deserves credit by 1873 to you s government followed in
the footsteps of its European counterparts and began issuing these government
issued cards with the postage pre-fixed we see an example that at the
bottom now initially postcards were limited to
domestic distribution but soon it became evident there was tremendous need and
demand for this type of communication to be
international and also for the need for it to be
regulated the Universal Postal Union was formed in the mid 1870s an international delivery a postcard
soon became possible by 1870 8 the headset the standard size for postcards which is
that three-and-a-half by five centimeters and that is the size at most to the
University postcards that you’ll see in the exhibition upstairs except for the oversized courage for
example and by 1886 it was agreed that postcards could be circulated
internationally and of course with that possibility
there was greater to manage now kind of simultaneous with
the rise deregulation postcards on it also the
agreement that they could be distributed on across national borders the week’s
start to see dramatic changes in how postcards appeared so images begin to be added as well
imparted this has to do with on dramatic changes in printing
capabilities and technologies so the first post cards for
monochromatic so you would have images often produce to a
printing process perhaps from photograph that had been reproduces a
photograph we’re but with no collar on incorporated in
the card but with advances in the 1890s we start
to see the rise in Cromwell lithography so color could be incorporated on in the
designs as well in many of these were really intended to
advertise World’s Fairs or national expositions or importance in
on people’s lives and also businesses certainly recognize
the possibilities these type that illustrated pushcarts as
quick in inexpensive ways to advertise their
products to now been near our focus to the
austro-hungarian empire Habsburg rule began in Central Europe in
the late 13th century from 1804 into 1867 this region was
known as simply the Austrian Empire but following the austro-hungarian
compromise of 1867 it became a dual monarchy with hungry retaining a
degree of self-governance and at one point in fact the
austro-hungarian empire spanned 20 percent european was the second largest
European country behind the Russian Empire the end it was by 1900 the fourth largest capital in
Europe I’m just behind London Paris and Berlin
but despite the sort of distinguished on nature a bit size on in prominence it was in many ways
provincial the free sky is really quite clinically were Imperial and royal was applied to
the joint monarchy that was held between Austria and Hungary and this got quickly abbreviated because
German Richard often very long on a day like these little abbreviation
so cotton call you often see arm attached to the
names businesses that might make clothes for
the court or pastry or whatever it might be and that would even be further
abbreviated use Kharkov which some led the writer Robert Musil to mark
this abbreviation on me coming up with the work Iconia to
describe the Imperial Empire on many uses in his novel the man
without qualities as a way to sort of poke fun at the bureaucratic and highly stratified society that existed under
Habsburg rule now the in for France yasser I’m assume this road 1848 he was only 18 years old and he remained there until
his death in 1960 so just before the end of World War
one and in many ways he rebar embodied the
reluctance by some to embrace change he resided in
the Imperial hofer can you see if you have that on the right which is situated in the
heart at the 1st district and it was the seat of Habsburg power
for more than six centuries and today it functions largely as a
museum space in fact the CC museum is located I’m in Hartford now
the governor on sorry in for governed in multi-ethnic
nation with a blend Western in Eastern cultural traditions
where at least 10 languages were spoken including German
Hungarian Czech and Slovak and this nation would be
transformed under his rule despite his hesitations
to some degree now his old fashion preferences met that
in some ways the Empire on did like behind its European
counterparts and just give some examples who is personal tastes he favored sleeping on it iron bed his
entire life and also favored simple fair even though
we could’ve obviously a forty any kind of food that he wanted so his favorite meal was said to be
point beef beer fact heroes at 4 a.m. every day quickly set to work as you can imagine
there were tremendous amounts have legislation and other on matters that
had to be addressed by him personally we also know that he poured modern
architecture for those of you who might have been to the whole furger similar
with the n/a just across from the hope Bergen 1909 on
a close and constructed oversaw the construction
what is known as the house on the killer parts which is a lavish up building in terms
of its marble ornamentation with green and gold on materials being used on the facade but without any at the ornamental
decoration that we see on the front up the on hold Berg itself and the
improve was said to have absolutely detest to this building and
refused to leave the hopper their after during his lifetime but this
particular interest that we see great here so he made his unhappiness known quite
strongly at the inn for was one of only two
people that were honored by being depicted on
University postcards the only other person who appeared on a
postcard was the architect on a Wagner who ironically is credited
by many as the father of modern architecture in Vienna so that is quite bizarre that they would
on the one hand honor this you know father figure for
the nation but on the other hand honor the person that they saw is really
assuring in the modern age for that Modern Art and Design these are two
designs that were created by used day Becky on
that were produced in nineteen oh wait in combination with the 60th Jubilee
year Diamond Jubilee in celebration of funds yourselves rule
and we can see with these cards at these have a rather postage stamp play quality
so very few colors are incorporated and the one on the left certainly look
like they could be two miniature postage stamps or just put on these decorative backgrounds on the card on the left was so appealing at least at the time that
it was created that day mom which is one of the most
popular bakery and confectionery stores Indiana to this day and it’s a fact
situated just around the corner from the Habsburg use this card on 10 hits candy boxes and
effect a mile also continues to reprint some at the
University postcard designs and fixes them two boxes chocolates and
candies so really these continue to have a
popularity and life spent more than a hundred years after they were created day that he had moved to Vienna from
hungry so it shows kinda that read that the realm when he was a child
and he said he painting at Vienna’s Academy of Fine Arts and also took
classes at the quince commercial or school Applied Arts where he met artists who
were affiliated with any overtures deter and soon he was contributing graphic
designs are only to the workshops but to other companies Indiana and he
offered more than 50 postcard designs onto the converged data including his
some examples that were made for the tripoli but he also designed fashion postcards
and some others are on view obscures as well as cards for children
and holiday-themed cards now in 1857 the
imperf runs Joseph on deep ordered the destruction at the
city’s medieval wall so that to show him sorted emerging to some
degree from his more conservative mindset and this a medieval wall wasn’t a ship
fortification that have been established to protect Vienna from on such from the turks and other
countries and the wall was replaced with a grand boulevard encircling the inner city known as the
Ring structuring Street and it remains I think for the most
attractive boulevards in the nation’s capital even now when up
between 1860 in 1890 and was lined with Neil his
store sis structures in various styles including
your gothic near Renaissance in New York Roque there was no coherent
building program on for the structures and many architects including on a
Wagner use apartment and others saw these faux store sis styles as false
for their time in argued that it would have been better
if buildings had gone up took into account the way that people
truly live today but it is a metaphor for the Viennese
preoccupation with outward appearances that extended really
to all classes and walks life as the protective wall was
dismantled older structures in many cases were
destroyed to make way for the new and I would say this in some ways k
place gave way to some early preservationists on
Inklings Indiana because some at the artists
associated with the universe such as such as it’ll build Turkey’s a better made these postcards the really
highlight the beauty up these on medieval structures on which had to
rip made up the inner-city Vienna and sum up
the outskirts and I think because up the efforts %uh
keys over to end this for talking for almost outta who were trying to document the way that
vienna has existed for more than five centuries not all these
buildings were torn down and in fact you can still see somebody’s
I’m kinda were in Kabul lined streets if you walk through particularly the 1st
district even now now Vienna experienced remarkable growth really at the dawn of
the century and attracted citizens from throughout
the entire in fact the population expanded dramatically in a 50-year
period from 1850 to 1900 increasing from over 1/2 sorry from
half-a-million inhabitants to nearly two million during
that time on and as I said what’s really fantastic
is with the rise of photography we also see
the artists working on the postcards that we’re trying to on documents from
the dramatic changes that the city was experiencing is among those who
clamored against his tauruses architecture that was going up in the
ring strossen other places where groupId young
architects and designers who didn’t want to bring majority to the
nation’s capital and I would argue and I’m not alone in
this that maturity did come to the end with the founding up
the Vienna Secession more properly known as the Austrian
Association of the United artis it was established 1897 under the
leadership with Clint and we see him there what is ubiquitous
peter sparks on the right the secession our members
included not only painters but also architects applied artists graphic designers really um anyone who had studied at either the
Academy of Fine Arts at the school applied arts in Nissan young nannygate equal value to
both the fine and decorative arts which was novel idea at this time the notion that
the substance for total were covered in which all elements within a spaceport
exhibition hall house rumor even a theatrical piece with work
together in harmony incoherent once said a call was a
guiding principle for the secession in and later for the thing ever cheated the
industrialists and major on art collector called it can shine who
was father looted beacon China philosopher largely financed the construction up the
group’s first building which we see on the left which was designed by architect Joseph
Maria ok Rick with collaboration from column A knows her who was a
graphic in fashion designer who would go on to be a pager the building with up in six months and
was completed in 1898 it was dubbed a temple to art and was one of the first modern
buildings to be erected Indiana and many saw it really as a reaction
against those focused or sister I’ll structures the hit show earlier in the exhibition in the case
called collectors albums you can find 3 postcards about
the Vienna Secession to showing exterior views and one view a
wondershare exhibitions featuring paintings by
Gustav Klimt now reactions to the secession were quite mixed it was quickly dubbed by some pickled
cabbage because at the top there you can see distorted
guilt in trust me it’s guilt a couple other was made of laurel leaves
that were pierced on there were more sarcastic nickname so
one was monies to meh another critic called it an Assyrian
outhouse I’m someone else said that it looks like a cross between a glasshouse in a blast
furnace on so Peter people were quite sure how
to react to this very blocky building unworthy only ornamentation that you
really see on the facade is applied to the surface
incident being sculptural three-dimensional motifs that are really part over
traditional classical style architecture and in fact the group
itself even proudly proclaims its difference on
on the side just above the doorway and it exists there today was the
group’s motto which had been provided by critically the cava see which was due cited a
quince to consider Freiheit or two every H its art into are its
freedom and this is still very prominent or
exhibiting hall to this day in actually functions quite well now the
men who form the session had several goals for their organization they on put place primary emphasis on
the static the installations they wanted paintings
to be hung at I level rather than stack salon style such as
you see in this interior view they also argued for
progressive approach particular in comparison to the
concert house Arkansas House condition chopped the Austrian artists cooperative which
have been established in on early 1861 and all the members at the
concert house were men and it was a very private and
conservative group that really had very strong ideas about the art that could be shown in their spaces
and because some of the younger members to the concert house that were centered
around clint objected to their intolerance in
considering any modern ideas and the lack of cohesion in its
exhibitions or the consideration given to a steady exit its displays they decided they really
needed to break away and formed their own are exhibition space so as I had said really with the secession Vienna enters
the modern age just on the cops costs that the new century I’m get aim
to the session members in to make the in a
more cosmopolitan partly by exhibiting work from other
European countries but also by providing a place for not
only artist could see work either fellow colleagues but also were
collectors and the public would have the chance to see leading
developments from other nations diversity session exhibition was
actually not held in this session building because it was not yet
completed so they’ve rented space in the Vienna for Tue cultural society which was located just off the secession
in the show took place between March in June and notably the in for on French
Joseph came himself not quite sure how he reacted on but we
do know that some critics were very favorable in clearly a lot of on museum colleagues collectors and others
were quite taken because of the more than 500 works on
view more than half of them souls and I can say that a number at these did
enter the collection at the Museum of Applied Arts Vienna and they have some of them on you now so
it was a way for them all set to begin to acquire things for their holdings and to
show the students at the school with the play darts what their counterparts in other nations
were making now fortunately reactions to the
sessions exhibitions were more favorable than to the building the
session played a seminal in defining role in fact in the shape of modernism in Austria in the early 20th century and
in the years that clinton his colleagues were affiliated with the secession they held twenty three major exhibitions
in those for seven years included a wide range work everything
from on the left and showing pages from 8
p.m. a secession exhibition held in 1800 which was largely devoted
to contemporary decorative arts but they were fine arts on display as well primarily works from
the Arts and Crafts movement were included in this exhibition but they also hold shows on Art Nouveau
or you can steal on style works as well as
post-impressionist paintings from France Italy and other countries as well as exhibitions devoted to the
arts Japan which did proved to be highly
influential too graphic design in particular at this period in many countries now
despite this is sessions commercial and critical success it was not without scandal and in fact
schedule from the very beginning almost because with clips first poster design
on critics said it was indecent it depicted a scene from Greek
mythology showing Theseus slaying the minuter which she chose very
deliberately to symbolize the struggle up in new generation in revolt against
the owns but the sensors did not approve this
work because clinton had portrayed PCS in the news and they said that she
could not release this poster publicly like that so clint added
the street ranks are actually seeing the censored version up the poster but there are rare
survivals at the uncensored version I mean we sometimes show both of them
side by side a roadshow wonder show the other but that the poster then was released
any borrowed elements from the design for the on catalog cover for the first Vienna
Secession exhibition and you can see in the POS car show
upstairs how this motif was also used for one issue up there sa chrome members at the Vienna Secession also
designed a series of postcards including the one show that the right
and we have to have those urges postcards up in the exhibition is well and as these items to test the secession
favored artistically designed graphics only posters catalogs magazines and postcards but the release all this
is part of the entire isn’t conspirator program up the
secession and many of these works I’m you’ll notice maybe it’s not so
evident in this in the slides on perhaps you can see
Gustav Klimt’s name is there at the bottom of that one and you will see in summer the postcards
either the artist’s name is written out to their initials are incorporated so this demonstrates that
for them they did view these as works a fine art and that they were
very proud apiece designs and these attitudes would be carried
over on went deep in your sis been birch said it was established I’m
just a few years after the founding at the secession so shortly after the first session exhibition in fact a home group up 12
artist postcards a quince for postcards was releasing 1898 loser produced by the
our printer girl I can shake on by designs members of the Secession
on these were these designs were provided not
only by architectures apartment column in Moser
has already mentioned but Alford roller it off phone and use
it Rio prick all who would be involved to do with the
berkshire or we could go on to work with the Darmstadt colony I’m so another very important arts group
at the time and I just would draw your attention to
the fact that if you think about other postcards you might have seen from
the early 19th or 20th century how here there’s tremendous emphasis
given on the statics the postcard so graphic
elements are very carefully laid-out typography is chosen to sort it work
with the visual image it’s not just blocks answer lettering or
something like that but it’s really carefully place in in
sum up the cards from this concert postcard series there’s even traumatic areas a blank space left on which he
could read as a place that the sender might and newt
or maybe just as kind of a visual cause on that was part of the
designers concept these artists in fact have prior
experience working in the postcard median that be because before the session has been
established they were parted kinda coffee house club in Vienna known
as these even a clubber Club 7 and they would meet together on for a
number of years I’m sure talking about their plans before they finally got
fired up and decided to establish the secession and they frequently
communicated about their ideas by sending postcards to each other with
these quick sketches I’m in notes and in and you can see
there what I mean about how they would use that like space aunt to work
to their effort there benefit with the design the
card now we’re the most successful examples a
artist design postcards and one that in fact made two-career in many ways a German painter Milne
older in terms of giving him his start was his group of so-called now check
mountain postcards and these were inspired by his
experiences walking in the Swiss Alps and based on that he had submitted some
sketches to a munich-based for Journal known as
you can or the use and somebody’s designed to reproduce in
the magazine these humorous works quickly found an
audience in all to capitalize on this interest by treating colorless a graphic
postcards that were adaptations at these paintings and they were printed
in large print runs it said over a hundred thousand on her image and the overwhelming on
response to these carts was somewhat unexpected expression a scholar Peter Selz route
about mold is great to postcard designs and I quote their crude and simple in TR quality
which made no demands on intellect or static sensibility so
captured public taste that the addition was exhausted in 10 days earning gold at twenty thousand Swiss
francs and as soon as he could he gave up his teaching child and left
for Munich to become a full-time student at Beijing so that really says something about the
power up the postcard and perhaps I would argue the runaway
success if these cards led not only to secession in the University hours but other artists in Europe and the
United States and elsewhere to really realized the potential this medium that many would go on to
found the university may have discussed their plans for art is collaborative as early as 1900
win that 8 Vienna Secession exhibition was held by
1902 Hoffman Moser and the Scottish designer
Charles Rennie Mackintosh were engaged by fits Pandora for we see
him here on the left in his wedding photo to outfit the interiors up his villa
their daughter was a major patron up modern art and close friends with
many members at the Vienna Secession and he wrote on Hoffman in 1902 saying
sometimes when I look over my things I think this is session was found it for
me alone on we know that his collection
included clint paintings sculptures by the belgian
artist York Mina prints but will be there it’s Lee and
many other secession artists arm had works that worker incorporated
in their home on in by March 1903 clearly their door for Hoffman in Moser
had spent a lot of time talking about their plans on for this workshops because vendor for
rights mcintosh asking for his advice on the radio to establish a metal
workshop in mcintosh replied saying if one wishes to achieve artistic
success in every object you release must be most
definitely marked by individuality beauty any at most
accuracy it execution and while this certainly applies to the
metalworking all the other objects that to be your sugar produced it also applies to the postcards as
humble as they might have appeared in their
paper on medium now according to one version evidence
University was officially born in wanna be in his famous coffeehouses
the Heinrich talk which we see here on the left the cafe was in is it
integral part viennese culture to this day there are still more cafes in Vienna and
you could possibly ever experience and their popular with
tourists and natives on like and it’s a place where you can
only have coffee but also read the paper have a meal hey out on the writer peter out River
City even receive his mail I’m in his most favorite coffee house on
and artists and writers and politicians all had their favorite places their
favorite coffee houses and probably would not have strayed too
far into others from a competing brown on people were so strident in
their preferences but it is said that on your one fateful
day Hoffman and Moser were there chatting
their door for joined them they were talking about this idea to maybe established this metal
workshop inverter for said okay so what will it
cost in Moser said well if we had five hundred crowns we know just what to do in their door for who’s very wealthy put
the money out in handed over to so puffery moser
quickly than width rented an apartment your door for provides more money soon
it hurts and craftsmen and they’re off under way and here on these two postcards are both from that series that the
university would go on to produce they didn’t actually began issuing
postcards until nineteen 07 and continued with just a short period
interruption until 1920 and over the years 925 individual cards were released by
the firm on many of which do feature coffeehouses
and scenes from the Empire now that the in workshops as
I said was founded in 1903 and it really was one of the most important outgrew its up this assertion in the
certainly did go on to champion the notion that the sunken spec just as the secession had itself and so
they’ve been overshadowed when onto producer only this first no work
object that we see here on the left but they establish architectural office ultimately a
fashion office as well as the possibilities at making every kinda
ceramic textile class on bookbinding their concept was all inclusive and Nate
didn’t feel that anything was too small or too large for their purview even their stationary monograms invoices everything was
carefully considered and was really one of the first
companies to provide a cohesive graphic identity that would
communicate to their public there very strong ascetic sensibility by may
have 1903 they had registered with the Vienna trade ministry as in artisan production
cooperative and at that point I should emphasize
that really part if they’re cool was it wasn’t just that artist but create these beautiful
objects or I should say designs for beautiful objects but they worked closely with craftsman
to ensure that these objects would be is beautifully realised as the
artist had envisioned so I’m within six months if their
founding the realized it too small apartment they had rented was not large
enough for their grand ambitions into the move too much larger premises Indiana 7th district where they would
remain for the rest there existence until 1932 and the added workshops for all these other
areas that I had mentioned now huffington mozer with their concept
for the workshops it’s certainly been looking back to the British arts and
crafts example specifically Charles Robert Ashby
skilled handicraft which had been established in 1888 as a
way to on foster this creative a collaborative
working environment and well in Great Britain many had
objected to the rise in industrialization which lot of people size undermining the
role craftsman I’m in the austro-hungarian
empire to use some what’s different industrialization
was not quite is widespread and the goals of the
founders at the university did not exactly near those Ashby or other similar arts
and crafts workshops so well Charles Robert Ashby home
skilled at handicraft hope to produce well made goods that could be affordable
to the masses Hoffman moser recognize that if you’re
producing beautifully designed and well made products you know this is going to come at a
price and in some cases a very steep price 1905 the issued working program what
they called there they’re working program we see
here different to that as well as to if the interior spreads in the state in here parted the
manifesto where they say we neither can nor will compete for those prices that is chiefly done at the workers
expense on the contrary regard it as our highest duty to return him meaning the worker to a position in
which she can take pleasure in his labor and lead a life in keeping with human
dignity on and that is something that certainly
does distinguish them from most other similar workshops that took
place in the US and Europe at this time in we
can even see the prominence given to the Craftsman in Dayton column in moser not only designed to
local direction at the WW but also the rules
rose hallmark which will see stamped on some other
products he also created the monograms for the artists and we see some those on these
pages but also monograms for the Craftsman so many pieces will not only have the
local for the firm and the person who conceived the design
but often the person who physically made it not in
every case but in many cases especially for the expensive items now the same year that the I’m working
programmers issued there was a major rifts in this
membership the secession and a group of artists
centered around clint decided they were gonna say secede from the secession partly because they had a dispute over how exhibitions
were being hung and promoted so it’s quite ironic that they actually have to
vacate the building that they’ve really helped some establish on the members who were
kinda arguing with the so-called clint group felt there is too much emphasis
placed on the decorative arts so that’s quite interesting that’s saying that this gets some to inspect
notion was not completely received fully by everyone that was associated with the
group and others objected to the fact that members have the secession were
exhibiting and selling their works in commercial galleries and there were
members at the session that thought that was in violation the group rules it’s not there
philosophy so the the the country would go on to
found to mount I should say to major art exhibitions Indiana the purse was
called the crucial being nineteen oh 8 I’m which was really
limited to arts from the Empire in 1909 they would have a kinda sister
exhibition which was the international culture being which showed arts from
throughout Europe and it was housed in temporary buildings
that had been designed by US Department erected not far from the ring strasser they were over 50 I’m
separate rooms that were in these buildings in almost 200 artists contributed it was a very wide
re art that was shown so not only a gallery
that which was just the most recent paintings by Gustav Klimt
including that golden portrait of adorable an hour but also sculpture prints
decorative arts art for children garden art theatrical design graphic art even a modern cemetery was evidently
there now the crew Shelbina on exhibition in
fact became the first subjects have been numbered series a post cards even though they were not the first
postcards produce these were released in 1908 the earliest postcards on data 1907 but
the series was not issue in a chronological fashion so you can’t take the numbers as a way
of judging how they fall within the series so they’re
recordkeeping was a bit loosey-goosey you might say on these postcards and is I but no hope but we’re
probably based on photographs because they were released after the show opened in June on an clearly based on the the building sites but Hoffman I’m
helpful was also in architect who worked in the
decorative arts on and I think worked closely with
hopping on some projects as well now as I I mentioned the on crucial been
included a room dedicated to the graphic art and I’m showing 1- pew that here on this was primarily poster
design but it also included smaller pieces and more than 100 to be never should’ve
postcards were included in the space so was certainly a great way almost
simultaneous with the launch of the posters for the public to get an
opportunity two CDs in very elevated context and for sISTAR beginning poster collections
up there own to many of the designers who had posters specifically created for the show
showing by Roberto Loeffler at the bottom but Oskar Kokoschka on rid of Cal that also created coaster
specifically to advertise the quick shout be many which still exists in museum
collections to this day and they also create postcards for the
University exactly the same time to speak about Kokoschka I’m with the crucial vino on this young
kinda rebellious artists really gets his first
opportunity through the invitation Gustav Klimt to begin showing his work really on a
grand least national stage he had studied at the School of Applied
Arts from 1904 until 1909 taking classes in their car or a churchgoer who was one of the leading early
designers affiliated with the been overshadowed till he moves to Hamburg in 1907 to
begin teaching at the school the tide arts they’re and both are Kokoschka and Loeffler on contributed designed to the workshop
kasha offered his first post cards in 1907
buddy also contributed broadsheets painted
fans and books and at the ninety we could
show his book known as the Troubled knob inner
dreaming use was released on which really tells the quite personal
story through poetry and colored lithographs which was called
at the time a picture poem know that was described
as a children’s book it really recounts the artist juvenile
crush on the sister over fellow art student nameless R&B a
cautious it was a love letter for me although only 500 copies were printed up this book less than half sold in
critics were not so favorable on in there descriptions and reception
to this title I’m so the title the book was held back
in some years later is really swear by this point to push had a great reputation and it was
certainly far more popular on Kokoschka for his work not only does
Stream use but other things that he should at
this time which were more decorative pieces was dubbed by one critic as the
overbilling or super savage because his expressive style figures
with this heavy use a black in this woodcut style in primary colors was seen as being so
radical at that period it wasn’t really appreciate it for the a mid-air nitty that it represented in
in many ways in Kokoschka reacted to style not by
being she grins but instead he embraced it and so we had
his head shaved in win around for a while with the shaped head on justice or to give you some context
shaped heads at this period would really be associated with prisoners people who are in jail so it’s also
giving some sense of how these artists were seen as really kinda being
on the fringes of society in many ways but 1809 to go she was invited to return
to the code shown he exhibited some a fifth wheel orchards on these quickly
attracted the attention architect on a close and we see his portrait by kush on the right and Los was so impressed by
kush his burgeoning talent that he told him you should stop wasting your talents
making these decorative goods and become a pager full-time and I will
fight patrons for you and anyone who doesn’t agree to buy dear portrait I will purchase them by
myself for myself and in fact on in the early
20th century Los had the largest collection at the
bush fortunes because most of the sitters thought they
looked terrible and they didn’t wanna hang these
paintings are in their houses and so that does serve show just kinda how avant-garde I’m and radical on these
works were so ago she was certainly an deemed rebel I’m in many ways and not just against
how his art should be made but also in methods love how to teach and approach on the creation of his art
we know that he liked working with children whether it was street urchins are circus
figures but basically people who were untrained models who were not so careful is studied in
their poses who were more nonchalant on we know a little bit also that because he’s
working method that he did not insist that someone stand stock still he had no problems with people moving
about Sri continuing about their their life well he was there working on
his canvases it something to work directly on campus
without even making sketches in advance so quite different approach to have
mister clinton court who would forget we make hundreds %uh preparatory sketches and maybe take
years working on some his designs so we see here in early sketch by Kakashi will he still
a student and a contemporary postcard work and we
have at least what 12 if not more he made more than 20
postcard designs for the universe data and more than a dozen of them are
included on in the exhibition and I really encourage you to take some
time to study this works which feature a wide variety of subjects so not only
holiday cards weather is Pentecost Easter Christmas New Year type things but also
works that speak to the growing interest in folk art that was emerging in Vienna at this
time and we see that quite beautifully I
think in the Huntsman curtain and the one at this lovely woman am out in a meadow flowers
now all a cautious postcard designs for the University tend
to favor I’m figures pose in expressive on postures many of which echo about her choreography which was
emerging in the modern dance movement at this time and they certainly recall on the dances a great abuse in tall and her sisters
and we see greater here on the left TVs and soul sisters in fact debuted
their innovative ecstatic style folk dance as it was described by some
critics at the Cabaret Fledermaus and I’ll see more about the Kaveri for a
mouse in a moment and because it wasn’t only just a pager in a decorative artist
but he also drew expressionist place and contributed theater pieces to the
flatter mouse himself on his fairy tale play called the
speckled a debut there in 1907 a second plane
known as the critters perform their 1909 so we can see that many of these r is
for working in different genres they were limited just to one particular around
1908 was a watershed year for Vienna in many ways
and it wasn’t just that major art show but in fact as I had mentioned earlier it was the
60th Jubilee the importer he was seventy eight-years-old and the
same month at the crib show exhibition opens there was this massive
parade that women laundering strossen were people dressed in costumes representing the different ages and
nationalities the Empire paraded in front in for who you can see
here plaintive on this daily on the right and
he it was said that he insisted on standing
for all at the hours that it took for these thousands of people to walk by him on simultaneous with the Jubilee the government issued a
postage stamp on that was commissioned by coleman
Moser seated on the left I’m but also in
conjunction with the Jubilee was this wonderful
series postcards released by the university itself and
these are among the most striking early carts that came out of the workshops with designs by various artists
including the media scaling cuba on sickle you served a pic T and
Berthold Loeffler and we have a number of these included
on in the exhibition in the first gallery you can see there’s lot of
attention lavished only in capturing accurately the dress up the people who participated in the
parade but as I mentioned even with those secession cards we see that the decorative order is also
conceived to kinda cool here with the the style
clothing but the typography changes appropriately
as well in on the bright I’m we see the some a man in costume is very much
harking back to the Pew Meyer period and I should mention that for these
artists that are establishing the been averted in particular they
looked very on the back to the Biedermeier which taking place
just about a hundred years prior in SOL in these very classical simple
forms in many cases very unadorned an important source
of inspiration for their work so if you look at some it early being a
birch data on products you’ll notice that those clean simple
lines in many ways echo Peter Mayer examples know I had mentioned arm that there was this wonderful
cabaret on that was founded where not only
modern dance was performed but also its precious plays by Kokoschka and others this ok nightclub was known as the Cabaret
Fledermaus or that cabaret which seems an appropriate name
for a nightclub I’m for its parent or for who was the financial backer up the
beer perched at its founding had commissioned Hoffman in the other artists associated
with the firm design all the interiors as well as the furniture the place
settings even the click them the clip that the hostess with where that would hand you
your ticket when you which injured so we see here on I showing the postcard
view as well as the black and white photo that shows the entry or bar area of the Cabaret it was
quite nice about the postcard is it confirms that these were brightly-colored spaces
in not these kind of stayed I’m conservative interiors that we might
imagine from only being able to refer to black and white
photos on cabaret letterman’s postcards were designed to
not only by use a partner in fact they are among the few postcard city actually dedicated his
considerable talents to but also by virtue of their who created
them great poster on 40 could Shelby but also other
artists on promoting not only the place themselves
in the space but even some hertzberg designed to
coincide with the performances by modern dancers if you purchase an artist not only
decide postcards on for the Cabaret but they also
designed illustrations that would be included in deprogramming inserts and I’m showing
on the right one of those designs that was creative effort Sameer and we do have a
postcard in the exhibition upstairs which is a very similar dancing secure so you can see
the kind echoes on in the ways that the
advertising sorta complicated itself on various levels I’m as ever dimension this cabaret was not only a place for
modern dance to place but writers could calm and each on people such as gere out in
Bergen others for unpopular attendees and performers at the new and what’s quite interesting
i think is that well this was appear that modern dance
and choreography was emerging many leading figures in fact being women
ironically women were just beginning to fight for opportunities have greater political rights
Educational Rights I’m so the arts were really one of the first places where
they were able to kind of find their modern Voice to restrictions
on what women could do at this time really carried through in
various ways in women coat on you know I think by trying to see how
far they can push the envelope so while they were unable to study at
university in Vienna until the late 19th century it certainly
many of the leading society figures including double booked our in others posted
salons where writers politicians artists musicians all kinds of people
would come share conversation so this is one way that you
could sort it cope by not being able to have a formal education granted to you I’m we also know that
because I love the rise love industrialization
even though it was not quite as widespread impunity there was this emerging class of wealthy
collectors who wanted to outfit their home is beautifully as they could afford but they also wanted to see their
children educated even better than they had been so there began to be demands to allow
women to go to get these higher degrees but also
demands for universal suffrage so universal suffrage for men in Austria
was not in acted in till nineteen 06 women received universal suffrage in
nineteen each and really I would say these kind of
simultaneous rights unmet greater opportunities for
education open up to them as well so they first began entering the
University Vienna in 1897 and a start setting at the controversial
on undercover mimosa in 1899 and miss great photo is I’m showing the director
up the conspiracy love with some other female students wearing these wonderful reform style dresses even with that
checkerboard style pattern which you see a lot of the University
objects many of these young women with did go on to create designs for the
workshops ironically I’m in the early years that
the workshop was founded most the product offered by then even though
they were intended for women in many cases were designed by name I’m in 1905 they
start first producing textiles which were hand printed and
painted silks which were made in house but they soon
realized that they want me to produce is on a much larger scale in for interior projects so they start
working with you hun back housing and so on and we have on display in the exhibition
number really beautiful textile designs on loan
from the wilsonian museum and I hope you’ll take the time
to look at those in compare them to the textiles the postcards Palin in 1910 they realize that you know this is a
great opportunity these textiles and they could begin offering full
ensembles in fashion so they on promoter Edward Joseph Zimmer
this girl who’d been working with the worship since 1906 to be the head up the fashion department
in a even dubbed him the architect fashion he
had studied under Hoffman at the kurds cover official and was sent
to kind of man there Carlsberg ranchers a great oversize photo blow-up at the
start the exhibition which I hope you’ll take
time to sit in greater detail this is showing a a slightly cropped view but if you look
at that lower you can see it right here is a great rates in the
post cards as well as some of the other early products on up the beer perched
and at this place then it only sold those postcards and
ceramics and metal works but also allotted accessories because carlsbad
was an important spar or resort town so it’s completely
natural that they would want to have things on offer here that would be appealing to
the female clients the never said it first received the Taylors license in
March 1911 and they held a fashion show it the following month in April which
featured dresses designed by Hoffman and by the murder and critical response to these works was incredibly favorable
many critics in fact recognizing that now with all the things that the workshops
offered you really could have fully complete ensembles from your hat your children your shoes
Accenture as I had mentioned there was designated as the architect to
fashion and they even made special labels for
clothes that he had designed which had that every Asian for architect
dimmer on Hoffman who actually was the more
prolific architect by a wide degree on prefer to
counsel professor Hoffman which i think is quite
interesting any even signed lot of the sketches with that Professor
I’m kinda title and I think this points to the store to
buy idealistic and undercurrents which for effecting the management of the
workshops at this time that they really wanted to
distinguish kinda how they they view themselves
despite the way they actually practiced no inspiration from University fashion
came from various sources including artistic on reform clothing
which was emerging on in Vienna most particularly through
salons like the semester including fashions line which offered reform
dresses but there were other similar boutiques I’m available but the Austrians also
look to French on quarter designs for inspiration as
well at this period many reformers argued against the corset saying that it
was poor for your health restricted your ability to move and as
women were certainly emerging into the workplace they needed to have greater
freedom of movement but also a new saloon was falling into
fashion at this time so that height tightly pinched lost waste on was kinda quickly falling out of
favor and we can see both through illustrations Center in the
show but also if you look at books on the subject that many at the University postcards
and I’m showing when here on the left my male caller directly near on photographic fashions
that the university released in conjunction with
that fashion show and many of these early dresses are in this new on amp:
here style with the com kinda invisible waste your very high
waist very kinda tight on bodice area and in
walking through the Italian style exhibition on with win to clinch we’re
very taken by the fact that the Audrey Hepburn down on display from one piece is in
exactly this type and style national so if you want to imagine what
one of those dresses look and three dimension I energy to go in kinda make that
juxtaposition in your own mind I think what’s also interesting is that
if you look at the early post originally appeared in with the photographs in many
cases the postcard sketches are far more flattering to the
figures on clearly when they first begin making
these they come across far more like sack
dresses so there is really no sense you know the feminine form in these
early dresses that were actually turned out by
the workshops that as they get greater fluidity with
making these in perhaps after consulting with Realty Hillary experts on the stylistic
loading really does begin to improve 1911 French fashion designer Paul per a
actually visited the city in November and he purchased a number
again overture fabrics and also products and would
bring these back to Paris with him in this sort have sparked a slight see each shift see shift in on parisians designs that as they begin
to show in Austrian or viennese influence in the
years thereafter in effect for a week even established
kinda arts and crafts workshop known as the studio martine that was in
many ways modeled after they’ve been emerged today for use young female students to create
on goods particularly for women so it shows that it was injured the more sophisticated parisians you’re
showing the Viennese how fashion should really be done many critics in fact showed some
trepidation when they heard it for a might come with his fashion show because
he was certainly seen as a competitor and there is a lot of
nationalistic rivalry between the French in the Austrians at this time one critic was pointing out trying to
sort it boost the morale the Viennese saying well the Viennese
are pretty random or a buxom and parisians don’t have any hips I’m so you know who’d who knows how strongly
they really took these competitive lives arm and whimper it was actually interviewed about how practical
his fashions would be four no society woman at the day and whether
or not his unusual costumes and light colored shoes
would would work for women who actually might
have to go out onto the street he said the ladies I dress don’t go onto
the streets so is also kinda i think im trying to
say well my women don’t work these are wealthy women who you know
essentially have lunch in Haiti and don’t throw themselves with he’s
kinda concerns that you are strains are arguing about but dinner was clearly influenced Piper is visit and we can see in his
postcard designs even though he was the architect a
passionate headed the fashion branch for gosh I am I think a dozen years
before he comes to the United States he only releases I think it’s 10
postcards so perhaps he was too busy making him fashion sketches for things
that would be produced in actually overseeing the management at the branch
but it’s a nice juxtaposition I think with one of the burkharts and you can
see this and many others by the Murano in the display upstairs you can see that
he’s emulating that kind of Sultana typeof design hip hurray had released
just at this period November strength is a
designer really was in the area fashion not in
architecture although he did work and other media to and interestingly enough ever
came to the united states and 100 the Art Institute of Chicago for a couple years between 1922 and 1924 before he decided this was really not
the place for him to be and he returns on to Vienna and continue
to teach their until he retired in the mid 1950s we
also know that he spent some time visiting the New York branch to be rich
to and there’s a great photo showing 1- the interiors up that branch he was very
disheartened because everyone it hopes that this branch in america would bring you know more
money and recognition to the workshops but he was sad to see that
there weren’t a lot of customers milling about and things weren’t selling as well as the it hoped and people were
buying large quantities of things but maybe Rex only singular items and
showing here to have his on postcard designs on which are
included in the catalog and in the show but certainly as prolific and as
ambitious as member was as an artists the workshop
fashion bridge would not have been so successful if
there had been many other talented people behind it and many of those
people were in fact women male caller being one of the most
notable artists who was involved with that effort she was
the most prolific postcard designer creating more than 150 on designs to rule many in the area
fashion but not exclusively in the area fashion she also do children’s pushcart
your postcards holiday postcards and we have a number those on display in
the exhibition and you can see that she really lavish
is a lot of interest on the this silhouette the person and a lot of detail you know
showing you the most the non-partisan issue and hats are really
trying to I think obey convey to a female client which look
like if you had acquired the entire ensemble on and I think it’s great to
see the photo of her dressed in a very similar way on the right summer for fashion designs we know on correspond directly to close that
were made and survived including on the right blouse that was
probably designed by Hoffman remember in with beautiful folkstyle embroidery
arm at the neck and at this Lease and the
related on postcard here on the left this was pretty the series that she did in these women dressed in the she style
silhouettes accompanied by small very cute little dogs I’m in with these kinda splotchy
background that to me makes me think so much about
how boger some other leading women’s fashion magazine today would create these almost artistic
style backdrops to make the clothes stand out even more
so she also created a postcard really reflexed is a mention the
interest in beer Myer Fashions to these would not have been close that wouldn’t necessarily on been worn
to a large degree although we are aware that they were
guarded parties in other cunt special events where women
who kinda allied themselves with the year myers et al use would order close in this peer Meyer
style even though it would have been deemed very old-fashioned at this time I’m not aware of the stress is really
corresponded to things that they’ve been averted itself made but it certainly was
speaking to the arm prevailing interest by many there patrons at this time in on the
right is one of her most humorous I think holiday postcards for New Years where we see a woman in
this really elegant dress surrounded by pics various size they’re
being fattened up on for cook I wanted to also make
mention to the fact that there are many variations in the
postcards on cards would differ sometimes not only in their size but
also in the colors that they might be printed in in this could be due to the fact that
the workshops on collaborated with three different
pictures and the cards could be issued over a period of years
the holiday cards were among the most popular into would be reissued on a more regular
basis than to love those purchases I encourage that might have only been
issued one time and in addition to perhaps only hundred
or a few hundred as opposed to a thousand were a few
thousand also what’s quite interesting is that often the new at the bottom on
would it here in German were in English am linda
mentioned that there are cards that survive in French we don’t have any of
those in the show but it is quite interesting to see that
they did recognize that they had a French market we do have some in the exhibition that
have I’m writing in Sri lick I’m so that’s I think somewhat of a
surprise as well that they saw that there audience really
extended quite far beyond the realm of the austro-hungarian empire itself a male caller also designed series postcards devoted not only two
women in sport which we see on the right in a few which
are included in the exhibition they’re also things that were to appeal
to children showing girls a various age from very young to
almost teenagers playing with on different dolls and I think this
speaks to the fact that the new woman I’m kinda as it a tight was emerging I’m
even prior to women granting have been granted for suffrage summer
the most beautiful cards that need male caller on created in that are among
the most collectible are these oversize I’m had postcards into square-shaped on these were not intended
to be mailed but would have been something that
collectors really try to get the entire series for and we know that the workshops even made
frames so with this simple black would profile and some as I understand it that which
is class that clips I’m so that it could be close together
but there wouldn’t be any frame around the card itself it could just
hang on your wall so this also emphasizes the fact that at this
time these were appreciated as miniature works a bird and were also promoted directly to
appeal to collectors male caller was not the only artist who
was extremely gifted in the area of women’s
fashion really cards he also studied at the School of Applied
Arts under common and other artists who were affiliated with the workshops and um kinda on the back at the case
that has only male caller cards we do have some really carts his designs
including this wonderful one I’m in this beautiful pattern charm
dresser jacket I’m wearing this fanciful hat liquor to
only made a number of fashion postcards but also cards related
to carnival and Paul subjects as well as holiday designs perhaps the most striking I’m syriza
cards produced by Maria the carts coincide with the information at the
deli ruse Belarus had been established in Paris in
1901 nine by Sir KT AGA left and it toward
Vienna on numerous occasions including in 1912
in 1913 it release party interest Orientalist
design the German magazine which point across
your own published in article in conjunction with the belarus coming to Vienna and it
very clearly inspired not only the cards with her postcards I’m really nearing some other costumes
that were created by rail asks for those Belarus on performances but even dimmer starts making sketches
on for the workshops that that echo that kinda exotic Orientalist
Thousand and One Nights kinda folktale on aspiration I’m fashion certainly was one of the
major areas that have been a Berkshire uncovered so so far we’ve seen you know
things that relate directly to events for places in Vienna we’ve seen some the
holiday card to team to fashion cards so many of these were clearly geared
toward a more feminine clientele but they also untreated humor cards and other things that are perhaps
somewhat harder to quantify but that would have had a broader base
appeal and where the artist who worked in some others other areas outside a fashion was more a
teal I think he was one of the most gifted
I’m in this kind of satirical style humor he had studied at the School
Applied Arts on in Jim it’s really really strong
talent in the area graphic design begins offering words to the university
as early as 1907 I’m specifically for cabaret Fledermaus
in some the workshops other activities including
characters have some other performers who appeared at the Cabaret in your own
provided more than 70 postcard designs for the workshops on many which as I said show the
splendid humor and satire so on the left we have one from a series
he did all about conversation or communication and I
might say miscommunication as we see these or give funny
misunderstandings that take place so I’m showing conversation between mutes but there’s another really she responds
in the show in a few additional ones you can see in the catalog and on the right is
someone from a whole series he did called variety acts which are these imaginary on bizarre variety act so here
we see it kind of genius virtuoso and embryonic
state I’m playing a violin but there are others I’m including a man who fast until he
becomes a skeleton and others use it dear double artists
who flies on a a broom like thing on and to see all officers maybe a
mention there’s a really great book available on in the
first book store that has the complete run all the cards
in color you also designed a series of cards on PNS cafe culture in resource in
with those at the beginning on up the talk on one of his most famous
series of cards and is the series devoted to airplanes I’m
young may have been inspired backed by the
work over fellow Austrian Eagle air trick debuted his monoplane I’m in 1909 and it was first flown in
1910 and went on to be used not only for
civilian that awesome military purposes knows quite excited to find this photo
showing the first class students from the austro-hungarian royal
and imperial or cotton cock I’m fine school which was
located just north sorry South Indian in the dinner reshot
I’m so with an airplane but another certainly on probably more significant airplane arm events that took place for Vienna was
that Louis Blair EO the the Frenchman had flown over DNA in 1909
and it was said that more than 300,000 people came out to witness play areas flights
including the Emperor himself Google area even got to meet so I think
this hope sparked this kind of imagination for this new technological you’re flying machine in the
possibilities that it could provide but it wasn’t just you know on those humorous kinda imagining things
they were also postcards that reflect kinda daily life in the inner leisure
activities in Vienna and wannabes our series that I think
among the most appealing is this group it a bit too he’s a better did on dedicated to the
shin brings you shin bruise you had been established
kinda buzzin Imperial Armour Nakheel menagerie in the need eighteenth-century on and it was
created and written for France on France’s the first who was the
husband of Maria Teresa in very quickly it was open to the
public and they began acquiring these exotic animals from all over the globe including an elephant polar bear and
when they acquired their first your app’s in 1828 it sparked this mad crease for
everything giraffe inspired Indiana so you see
draft fabrics arm incorporated in clothing in
upholstery upholstery the even if it made you laugh
like cats for women on takes place so here we see that that
kinda giraffe fascination certainly carried over even
into the early 20th century on in fact is you remains one of the
most popular tourist attractions even now no mostly been a virtual
postcards that we’ve looked at and that are included in the
exhibition were treated actually within a very short window of time six years in fact between 1907 when
those first character issue in 1930 so with the outbreak of World
War one perhaps these items in certain the other
things that the university had been creating were deemed to be too frivolous for the
seriousness up the times is one way to express it I
think also what are the things that Linda and I had
independently kinda worked out was that the cost if
these cards so if a typical card at this time it had only been a few cents or Center or even less these
cards were probably at least in what today would be worth a dollar or
more depending on the rate of inflation when you purchased it so they were many many many more times
expensive then the cost of a standard postcard so people would it may be thought twice
about you’re using their spare change in this way also with the outbreak of
war tourism was drastically reduced and you know there’s no denying the fact
that many of the artists and craftsmen who are employed by the workshops were
conscripted to go and fight and some of them did lose their lives on
the battlefields so specifically I can mention for the
post card designers who died during the hostilities these were being younger more its young
whose works we just saw gustav how Homer and Hans com steiner
all died during world war one and this is part of why women begin
working in the workshops it’s not just that they now have the education and the
opportunity afforded to them that also the workshops needed people to
create designs and help with the management up those workshops after the war indeed a kind of second very short live
series issued 1919 1920 with designs by two
women again students a bit because commercial
fritzy lou and you can see her works on is one on the left you can see more of
them in the catalog and Hilda yessir in the exhibition is also a really
beautiful kinda jewelry case that she designed at the same time on as
these postcards on loan from the water Sony so you can get a sense a her artistic
sensibility that also held the workshops was trying
to cope in very creative ways with the lack of materials that they had
at their disposal and also the fact that their clients
would have had less money at their disposal in order to purchase their fanciful
designs now almost all of the cards that we have
seen today in this presentation except for
those early cards really fall within what is known as the
Golden age a post card collecting which is generally accepted as extending
from the mid 1890s until the outbreak of World War
one and these cards on as I sever humidity’s cars were so popular they
were printed many times on some were judged to be so obscure
that they would not have been reprinted all and there’s even one in the
exhibition that it is believed was never sent to anyone because none survive with the stamp for
a postmark but one person that we know is a huge fan not only University postcard that
postcards in general was the artist Gustav Klimt in fact here is a book that is just
dedicated to the correspondence that he sent to Emily if lugar that reproduces the the cards with translations in
English in German because his handwriting can be very
difficult to read Clintwood send Fluker I’m sometimes many postcards in one day
on and we see here on the left a poster
that he center will she was in Paris actually attending fridge for
tour shows this was the third card that he Center
on October 3rd 1909 think he was missing her really
tremendously she was as close as friend his sister-in-law his muse on perhaps
more perhaps less that we know they had an extremely close relationship and when he was on his deathbed he
called for her but when he’s in this particular card he makes a joke
to her saying may be alright you postcards all day it’s possible this won’t be the
last in fact it wasn’t he wrote her two other
ones just that day alone I’m in many of these do survive in early
museum collections are among the most treasured artifacts by Clint time since noted his
Giro masonic his diaries survive these miniature works have art really serve both to advertise the
products at the University created but also as an inexpensive way for the
workshops to really spread their concepts a good
design to a very broad in wide international audience they also provide I think a wonderful glimpse into the
zeitgeist early 20th century in demonstrating credible charms I’m up
the city but also the talents of its designers
and I’m showing here in interior view up their branch on the graph in which
was really kind like the Madison Avenue at the end at that period and still functions that way today for
you can see them kind of stacked up in this cigarette style it so I hope that the show in my talk
might inspire you to go and purchase a postcard from the first on gifts store and send
those out and not just limit your communications to your friends and
family only two text messages or Facebook posts
so really thank you very much really appreciate you

2 thoughts on “Curator’s Perspective Postcards of the Wiener Werkstätte”

  1. The War's influence of the Postcards.?
    Or the Postcards influence on the War?
    The German government had info with photographic military intelligence…due too the Postcards?
    I'd say so. Interesting this ww1 an postcard community.

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