CS50 2019 – Lecture 0 – Computational Thinking, Scratch

CS50 2019 – Lecture 0 – Computational Thinking, Scratch

Harvard University’s introduction for the intellectual
enterprises of computer science and the art of programming. My name is David Malan, and
I actually took this course myself sophomore year some years ago. But I almost didn’t. At the time, I was quite
uneasy with the idea, frankly, of taking a computer science
course, let alone this course. And so my freshman
year, at least, I really gravitated toward
courses and departments with which I was much more familiar. Computer science was well beyond
my comfort zone at the time, and it was really
these unfamiliar waters that I wasn’t quite ready
to shop, even my first year. But sophomore year, I finally got up the
nerve to come through the door of CS50, and only because the professor at the
time let me take the course pass/fail. I was that uneasy. And if only I had known at
the time what I now know, which is that 2/3 of
CS50 students have never taken a computer science course before. So if you are feeling similarly uneasy
with the idea of trying something new, or even if you have
prior background but are looking to fill in
gaps in your knowledge, or if you’re particularly
self-taught, realize you are very much in good company. And ultimately, what
matters in this course is not so much where you end
up relative to your classmates, but where you end up relative to
yourself when you began, which is, of course, today. So what, then, is computer science? And what was it that
I was so uneasy with? Well, I dare say we can describe
computer science as this. It’s just the process
of solving problems. And what does it mean
to solve a problem? You’ve got some input. And the goal is to get some output, the
solution, to that particular problem. And in between, really,
is computer science. And we’ll see what’s in this
literal black box on the screen as we begin to fill in
some of those blanks. But when we consider a
problem to be solved, we have to all agree from the get-go,
especially if we’re using machines, how are we going to represent
these inputs and outputs? And so one of the first concepts
we explore in computer science is how you represent information itself. And odds are you probably
know coming into this course that computers only speak
what language, so to speak? AUDIENCE: Binary. DAVID MALAN: Yeah. So binary. And if you’ve never heard that
term before, fine, as well. But zeros and ones, somehow. But how do we get to that point? Well, even if you kind of know
that computers speak binary, whatever that means, but
you haven’t necessarily thought about how that works,
well, consider how most of us learn how to count maybe
first on our hands. If I want to count the
number of people in the room, I might do 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, putting up
one finger for every person in the room. So that’s what’s known
as unary notation. [? U, ?] or uno, implying 1 because
I’m just putting up a finger or not to count people in the room. Of course, I can only count
so high on just one hand. But thankfully, we have many symbols in
our so-called human world of decimal. Dec meaning 10, we have
digits 0 through 9. And from there, we can express any
numbers with which we’re all familiar. But computers don’t
have that many digits. They only have zeros and ones. And yet somehow, they’re able
to store not only numbers, but letters and images and videos
and sounds and so much more. So how does that work? Well, let’s take a quick look at just
this to get everyone on the same page as to how you can build the phones in
our pockets, the laptops on our desk today, using just zeros and ones. Well, these are just
symbols on the screen here. What does this, of course, represent? 123, but why? I mean, these literally
are just symbols or glyphs on the screen, sort of strokes of a
pen that we all ascribe meaning to. We just see this as 123. But why is that? Well, if you’re like me, you
probably learned way back when to think of the rightmost digit
as being in the ones place or the ones column, the middle digit
as being in the tens place, and the leftmost digit
as being in the hundreds place. So how do we get from this pattern
of 1, 2, 3 to the number 123? Well, it’s some quick mental math
that we all just do instinctively. It’s 100 times 1, plus 10
times 2, plus 1 times 3. That, of course, gives us 100
plus 20 plus three, or 123. So all of us just kind of take
that process for granted now. But it turns out that
there’s a system at play here, a system such that we can
figure out any number in the same way. So if we’ve got our ones place, tens
place, and hundreds place, of course, in the decimal world,
this is the number 1, this is the number 2,
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Something interesting
happens, of course, after 9. You sort of carry the 1. And why then does 010, or if we
ignore the leading zeros as being insignificant, why does one 0 represent
the number we all know obviously as 10? Well, just because it’s
10 times 1 plus 1 times 0. So that’s the system we’ve
been using for years. And it turns out that these columns,
realize, are just powers of 10. So 10 to the 0 is 1, 10 to the
1 is 10, and 10 to the 2 is 100. That’s how we got ones,
tens, and hundreds place. Now in the computer world, you
don’t have 10 digits, 0 through 9. You have just two digits, 0 and 1. So we can just make a little
tweak to our mental model here, so to speak, and just now use 2,
powers of 2, instead of powers of 10. So that means the right hand
column is going to be 1, the middle column is going to be 2,
the left column is going to be 4, and if we kept going, it’d be 8, 16,
32 instead of 1,000, 10,000, 100,000. But the idea is exactly the same. So I propose that computers only
speak zeros and ones, of course. But how do they represent
larger numbers than 0 and 1? Well, this is representing 0. This is representing 1. What pattern of symbols on the
screen would represent the number we humans know as 2? Yeah. So 010. So you just spoke binary. So even if you just generally knew
that binary is spoken by computers, it just means that a computer, to
represent the number we know as 2, somehow stores a pattern
of symbols of 010. How do they represent 3? 011, for the same reason. It’s 2 times 1, plus 1 times
1, gives us, of course, three. And now, just as before when we meant
9 to 10, now we actually go from 3 to 4 by carrying the 1 now. So in binary, bi meaning two, hence
the 0 and 1, 100 is not 100, per se, it is literally the number we know as 4. And we can keep going on up. This of course, now is 5. This would be 6. This would be 7. And what happens if we
want to represent eight? Yeah. So we kind of have to
solve this somehow. We need another digit. And that’s fine, right? In math class, you would just add
another place, another column, in order to get back the value that you want. So we need more zeros or ones,
otherwise, now known as bit. If you’ve ever heard of the phrase
bit, it just means binary digit, and a 0 or a 1 is just
something we know as a bit. And why is this germane to computers? Well, as fancy as our Macs
and PCs and phones are today, consider, after all, that
at the end of the day, what do you have to do, typically,
with your laptop, your desktop, your phone these days? What do you do at the
very end of the day? Yeah, so you charge it, right? You plug it into some physical resource. That is the only physical resource
into these computers that we use today. And that’s kind of nice,
because, of course, the core can either be
plugged in or not plugged in. Or maybe we could call that a 1
or a 0, true or false, on or off, which is to say if
electricity is our only input and there’s either yes
electricity or no electricity, well, that actually maps quite
nicely to the idea of binary because we need just two symbols, 0 and
1, off and on, to represent that idea. Of course with a single bit,
you can’t do all that much. You can only count from
0 to 1, and that’s it. So computers tend to use larger numbers
of bits to represent information. And they do this ultimately physically. So it turns out that with
both plug-in the wall, or even a light bulb or a switch
thereof, you can represent a 0 or 1. But if you want to represent
more zeros and ones, well, we just need,
maybe, 8 bits at a time. And if you’ve ever heard of the
expression byte, a byte is just a term describing eight bits, eight zeros and
ones, a more useful measure instead. So given that, I think
it’s time, perhaps, to see if we can’t solve
the problem ourselves. Perhaps we could get, say,
two volunteers to come on? OK. Saw one hand here and
one hand over here. Come on down, if you want to meet
me on the other end of the stage. Come on over here. Come on down. What’s your name? PRIYANKA: Priyanka. DAVID MALAN: Priyanka, nice to meet you. David. Come on over and if you
want to wait right here. And what’s your name? CALVIN: Calvin. DAVID MALAN: Calvin? CALVIN: Yeah. DAVID MALAN: David. Nice to meet you. Come on over here where Priyanka is. So Priyanka, you raised your
hand first, so you get to choose. Do you want to go first or second
in this little challenge ahead? PRIYANKA: Uh, I’ll go first. DAVID MALAN: OK. So Priyanka is going to go first. If you want to stand over there, Calvin. So the challenge at
head here is could you go ahead and represent for us in
binary, using each of these light bulbs and, in turn, switches, as zeros
and ones, say, the number 50? So you might turn one light bulb
on representing the 32s place. Might turn a light bulb on
representing the eighth place. Our total count now is
32 plus not 8 plus 16, I think, which is going to give
us 32 plus 16, which is 48. And so we get now a round of
applause, if we could, for Priyanka. Thanks very much. Give us just a moment. So each of these light bulbs, then,
represents just a switch or a bit. And inside of your computer, if you’ve
ever heard the phrase transistor, a transistor is just a tiny
little switch in our computers. So they have millions or
billions of these switches that they use physically to represent
information and store values, just like Priyanka did here. So if a computer were to
represent the number 50, it would literally turn on
three switches of sorts, store a little bit of
electricity here, here, and here to represent the number
50, and it would leave off all of the other switches. The other five, in this case, if
we’re using eight bits or one byte. Calvin you raised your hand second, and
so we have one other challenge ahead. Fortunately, these things are magnetic,
so let’s take things up a notch. And if you would, Calvin– [LAUGHTER] –how about the number 13, if you will. How would a computer
represent the number 13 where each of these light bulbs
from 1 to 128 represents a bit? We had, of course, the ones place over
here, the twos place, four, eight, 16, and so forth. So we can ask the audience, should we
turn on, for instance, this bulb here? AUDIENCE: No. DAVID MALAN: No. Way too big. How about this one? CALVIN: No, too big. DAVID MALAN: OK. And you’re in charge. Ask the audience. CALVIN: This one? AUDIENCE: Yeah. CALVIN: Yeah. DAVID MALAN: OK. So we have 1, 2, 4, 8. CALVIN: 4. DAVID MALAN: 4 gives us 8 plus 4 is 12. And another round of
applause, if we could. Thank you. You got the tougher job. Thanks to you both. So at the end of the day, while this
is a very large physical incarnation of the notion of binary, that’s all
that’s going on inside of our computers every day when they
represent information. But we only, thus far, have the
ability to represent numbers, it seems. So how then does a computer allow
you to send text messages and emails and compose documents and so forth? We need to all agree how we’re
going to go about representing characters or letters of an alphabet, be
it English or something else, instead. And any intuition for
how, if a computer only has millions or billions of switches
that can be turned on and off, thereby representing numbers, we could possibly
go about representing something other than numbers, like the letter A? Say it again? By a digit. So we maybe just need to agree
as a group, you know what? Let’s all agree that the letter A,
in the context of a word processing program or a text message or email, just
needs to be represented by a number, and we all need to agree
what that number is. So maybe super simply, let’s just say
A is 1, B is 2, C is 3 and so forth. And you could imagine
then having a computer turn on lots of little transistors
to represent A and B and C, so long as the software on
that computer, as we’ll see, knows that it’s a word
processing program and not, say, a calculator or something
that’s meant to use numbers alone. So it turns out that computers don’t
actually use the number 1 for A or 2 for B. It’s a little bigger than that. The world decided decades ago
that the capital letter A is going to be represented by the number 65. 65, which is to say, if you have a
byte of information in the computer, and this is the ones place,
twos, four, eight, 16, 32, 64. If a computer were to store the capital
letter A using eight bits or switches, it would just turn on those two,
the 64s place and the ones place. And so when you have actually received
a message in a text message or an email with a capital letter A,
you have just received a pattern of zeros and ones
somehow, wirelessly or via wires, representing that pattern. Specifically, this pattern here,
if we draw it not as light bulbs, but as zeros and ones. So it turns out there are certainly more
numbers than just A’s and B’s and C’s. We have the whole alphabet plus
punctuation, thanks to a system called ASCII, the American Standard
Code for Information Interchange, which is just a fancy way of saying that
there is a well-defined map that humans around the world agreed
on years ago that looks a little something like this. So A is 65, an I is 73, and
dot dot dot to both ends. So that is to say if you were to receive
a message from a computer or from a friend saying 72, 73, 33, or the
pattern of zeros and ones representing those digits , what message
did you perhaps just receive? 72, 73, 33. Yeah. So, hi. So quite literally, if
you were to text a friend, hi, they would receive a message
that’s essentially a pattern of zeros and ones, 72, 73, then something. It’s actually not obvious
from the chart what they are, but it turns out 33 was the number
humans gave years ago to represent an exclamation point instead. And so any of the other punctuation
symbols you might see on your keyboard, similarly have numbers that a
computer would use, that all of us agreed on years ago, to
represent that value. But of course, this is very
American-centric at the moment. And indeed, the acronym
ASCII has American in it. So it was biased early on to
American English, for instance. But there’s so many more
characters in the world, of course, such as accented characters
and other languages altogether. And frankly, there’s also
these things these days, which even though they
look like pictures, you access them via your
keyboard because they are indeed just symbols in an alphabet. There are zeros and ones,
patterns of zeros and ones, that represent those
characters, as well. That’s what’s known as Unicode, and
that’s, like, a superset of ASCII. Because ASCII, way back when, used only
eight bits, which is not terribly many, to represent characters. Unicode uses 8 or 16
or 24 or even 32, which means we have a way many more
possible patterns of zeros and ones with which to represent
things like this. So this is face with tears of joy. As of 2019, it is the most popular
emoji sent on iOS devices, at least. Does anyone want to
hazard a guess as to what the decimal number is that
represents a face with tears of joy? Not 65. Not 72. Not 73. 800. Higher than that. 10,000. Higher than that. It’s 128,514. That’s how many emojis
await us down the road because the numbers are
now getting this big. Or equivalently, this
pattern of zeros and ones. So at the risk of taking all of
the fun out of ever sending someone an emoji, when you send
that face with tears of joy, you’re literally just somehow having
your phone send a friend’s phone this pattern of zeros and ones. And Android or iOS are presenting
it as that yellow picture. But that yellow picture, of
course, itself is an image. And it’s composed of
lots of little dots. And odds are coming
into this class, you’re generally familiar with
using images, certainly, and seeing the little dots
that compose an image. Especially if they’re of low quality,
you can really see those dots. And so in a face like the emoji,
we have lots of yellow dots. How does the computer
represent each of those dots? Well, according to a system called RGB. Red, green, blue. So again, decades ago, people in
a room decided, you know what? To represent colors, we still
have to use just zeros and ones, little switches, mechanically. But let’s just all agree what
numbers represent what colors. So we just need another system for that. Now it turns out that RGB essentially
composes any color of the rainbow by mixing together some
red, some green, some blue. And by combining those colors
one on top of the other, you can get any color
of the rainbow you want. So this is to say to store any
dot on the screen, one pixel, so to speak, in an image that you might
take as a photo or send to a friend, you are actually storing three values. One, two, three. Three numbers, really, that, of
course, at the end of the day, are zeros and ones. Those three numbers just tell the
computer how much red, how much green, and how much blue to use to
represent some dot on a screen. So suppose that coincidentally, a
computer were storing the pattern 72, 73, 33, albeit with zeros
and ones or light bulbs, back-to-back-to-back like this. Well, in the context of Photoshop or
a browser or Apple photos or the like, in the context of a graphical
program, your computer is going to interpret this
same pattern of digits, and in turn, bits, not as
high, exclamation point, but as some amount of red, some
amount of green, some amount of blue. And it turns out if you combine this
much red, 72, this much green, 73, followed by this much blue, 33, what you
get when you combine all three of those is a shade of yellow. So for every single
dot in that emoji, that face with tears of joy,
every dot in this image– and we can see it if we really zoom in– is stored using three values. Some amount of red,
some amount of green, some amount of blue
that we can bind give you yellow or black or
gray or anything else, depending on how you
encode those values. Meanwhile, images or videos, things like
this that you might see on the internet these days in the form of
memes or anything else, are actually just images, but they’re
multiple images in the same file. If you’ve ever seen what’s called
an animated GIF, which this happens to be that happens to be looping,
all our human eyes are seeing is one image after another after
another after another really quickly, creating the illusion,
therefore, of movement. But this cat is not actually moving. These are like five or 10 photographs
of a cat in different positions just being looped endlessly. And that, too, is all a video is. A video is just a sequence of images
flying past your eyes so quickly, we humans perceive it
as actual movement. And so that’s almost everything we
use to represent information today in our computers. We have zeros and ones
from which we get binary to which we then get
decimal digits, but we can use those digits to represent,
say, characters on the screen or colors on the screen and, in turn,
now even the more interactive. Now what about something
like music in a computer? Another type of information
you might want to represent? Well, if we had a piano
on the stage here, we could quantize the notes you’re
playing using just numbers, as well. What note you’re playing, maybe it’s
A, B, C, D, E, F or G or some variant thereof. Maybe how long you hold the key down
for, and if you hit it really hard, maybe how loud it is. So you could imagine using three values,
the note, the duration, and the volume just to represent something
like a piano song. [PIANO PLAYING] Might be one encoding of a song. And I might use different values if I
want to play it even louder and longer. [PIANO PLAYING] And so forth. Which is to say that
at the end of the day, no matter what media we use
to represent information, it all reduces to zeros and ones. So once we have the ability
to represent inputs, be it numbers or letters or colors or
videos, now we can talk about outputs. So how do we get from inputs to outputs? That’s what’s inside
this so-called black box, and this is where
computer science comes in. An algorithm. Anyone know what this term is? What’s an algorithm? You sort of read about it
all the time these days, especially in the context of
self-driving cars and Siri and Alexa and so forth. Yeah? A set way to do something, yeah. In the context of problem
solving, an algorithm is just step-by-step instructions
for solving some problem. So what might an algorithm be for a
problem that we might want to solve? Well, consider this. This is an old school
problem where you might have lots and lots of names
and lots of lots of numbers, and those names are hopefully sorted
alphabetically from A through Z in a book like this. And even though most of us don’t really
reach for this technology anymore, consider that it’s really the same
as your iPhone or Android phone or other device, which has all
of your contacts top to bottom and you can scroll
through them from A to Z, or you can search for them by typing
into the little autocomplete box. How is even your phone
solving this problem? Well let’s consider a simple approach. I’m going to look at the first page
and look for someone on the phone book. Suppose that person’s name is
Mike Smith, last name starting with S. Let me go ahead and look down. He’s not here. Let me turn the page. Let me turn the page. Let me turn the page. This is an algorithm. It’s a step-by-step process for
solving a problem, finding Mike Smith. Is this algorithm
correct, would you say? Yeah. I mean, it’s pretty slow, it’s pretty
stupid, in that it’s going to take, my God, forever, like, hundreds
of page turns to find Mike Smith. But if he’s there, I
will find him according to this step-by-step approach. What if I speed things up a bit just
because it’s tedious, otherwise? So I do two, four, six, eight,
10, 12, 14, 16 and so forth. Is that algorithm faster? Absolutely. Literally twice as fast. Is it correct? AUDIENCE: No. DAVID MALAN: No. Why? [INTERPOSING VOICES] DAVID MALAN: Yeah, we might skip them. I might get unlucky and
eventually, I might get to the S’s. But darn it if Mike wasn’t in between
two pages as I turn them at once. So it’s not a fatal flaw. That algorithm, I could
fix by just saying if you hit the T section or
maybe Sn instead of Sm, just back up one or so pages just to fix
that bug or mistake, so to speak. But it, at least, is twice as fast. But if this phone book
has 1,000 something pages, it’s still going to take me maybe 500
pairwise turns just to find Mike Smith. That’s a while just to look someone up. But most of us, if you’ve
used this technology, instead, did what, back in the day? Go roughly to the middle if there
aren’t little letters on the side off which to cheat. So roughly into the middle. I’m in the M section. Now the M’s, of course, mean
that Mike is not this way, which would be the A’s. He’s probably this way toward
the Z’s because S, of course, is between the M and the Z. So at this point, I can literally
tear the problem in half, throw half of the problem away very
dramatically and unnecessarily, making the point that we’ve now gone
from 1,000 some odd pages to what? 500. And I can do it again. Ah, I went a little too far. I’m now in the T section, so I can
tear the problem in half again, throw that half away, and now I’m
down from 1,000 to 500 to 250 pages only, after just two steps
in this step-by-step process. And if I repeat this again and
again and again, hopefully, I’ll be left, ultimately, with,
say, just one page on which Mike Smith either is or is not. And I can call him or quit. So that algorithm would get me
to the solution so much faster. And we can appreciate this even if
we just look at some of the numbers, ultimately, as follows. So if I start with, say, 1,024
pages total in the phone book, and I’m looking for Mike Smith, and
I divide and conquer this problem, splitting the problem in half and
in half and in half, I go to 512, I go to 256, 128, 64, 32, 16,
eight, four, two, and one. After just 10 steps, I have
found Mike Smith’s page. By contrast, that first
algorithm where I just did one page at a time, how
many steps, maybe, might it have taken me to find Mike Smith? Yeah, like, 700, 800, roughly
where the S’s might be. So in the worst case, 1,000 pages,
if I look through the whole thing. The second algorithm, maybe, 500 pages
because I’m going twice at a time. But my God, 10 steps
with this algorithm here. And odds are that would be the
algorithm most of us in this room would reach for by default, which is
to say that a lot of problem solving really, as we’ll find, is just about
harnessing your existing intuition and comfort with ideas that now you
just need to translate in such a way that machines and other
humans can understand. So how might we just think about
how much better that algorithm is? Well, consider this first line here. On this y-axis, or vertical
axis, let me describe this as the time to solve some problem. And on the horizontal, or
x-axis, the size of the problem. So the number of pages in the phone book
would get bigger as you go to the right and the number of seconds or page turns
required would go up along the y-axis here. So that first algorithm,
depicted here in red, suggests a one-to-one relationship
between the number of pages in the book and the number of
seconds to find someone. So you have this straight line. A slope of 1 over 1, if you will. And so if we consider
the second algorithm, the second algorithm is also
going to be a straight line, but that straight line is
going to be lower on the graph. Why? Because for any size problem, it’s
going to take me half as much time to search that phone book because, of
course, I’m going two pages at a time. So if we see this, for
instance, if this dashed line represents some number of
pages in the phone book, maybe 1,024, well, you can see that
it might take this many seconds or page turns to actually find Mike
Smith with that second algorithm. But in the first algorithm,
that same number of pages would take way more time
to solve, literally twice as much time in this case. Well what about the third algorithm? Well, even if your memory of what
a logarithm is a little hazy, it just describes a
fundamentally different shape. The green line describes that
third and final algorithm whereby you divided the problem not one
page at a time or two pages at a time, but 50% again and again and again. You have it again and again and again. And notice that as the number of pages
in the phone book gets really large, you barely make an impact on how much
time it takes to solve that problem. For instance, if Cambridge and Allston,
two towns here in Massachusetts, merge next year and
their phone books become one phone book that’s twice as
big, so not 1,000 pages each, but 2000 pages total,
how many more steps might it take us to find Mike
Smith in next year’s phone book if it’s got 2000 pages instead of 1,000? Just one more step. But the first two algorithms,
that’s another 1,000 steps, maybe, or another 500. These are fundamentally big
differences in efficiency, so to speak. So let’s translate this
idea, this intuition, into the first example of code. There’s a pseudo code. And there’s no one formal
definition of this. Pseudocode is code-like
syntax that you write in English or your own spoken
language that represents your ideas, but in a succinct way. And so I might propose that this
algorithm for finding Mike Smith might be written in pseudocode
English-like syntax as follows. Step one, pick up phone book, which
was indeed the first thing I did. Step two, open to the middle of phone
book, which is the next thing I did. Step three might be look at the
page to see if someone’s there and if Smith is on that
page, what do I want to do? Well, my code is going to
look a little different now, and I’m going to deliberately
indent to make clear that there’s a dependency here of some sort. I’m going to go ahead and step five and
call Mike only if line four is true, that he’s on the page. Else if Smith is earlier in the
book, to the left, so to speak, I’m going to go ahead and open to the
middle of the left half of the book, and then what am I probably
going to want to do next? AUDIENCE: [INAUDIBLE] DAVID MALAN: So, yeah, this, ultimately. How do I do this again and again? Well, I already have some code, if you
will, on line three that does that. Look at page and then make a
decision to go left or go right. So I’ll just say go back
to line three after going to the middle of the
left half of the book if Smith is indeed earlier in the book. The other scenario, of
course, is the opposite. So else if Smith is later in
book, let’s open to the middle of the right half of the book,
and then let’s go to line three. Else, there’s a fourth
possible scenario or case. What else might happen
in this algorithm? AUDIENCE: [INAUDIBLE] DAVID MALAN: He’s not there. And so I probably want to
anticipate that and just say quit if, indeed, he’s not on
the page, to the left of the page, or to the right of the page. So there is one way of expressing
this pseudocode albeit now in just this English-like syntax. But in this syntax alone,
there’s some commonalities, some features we’re going to
see over the next several weeks not only in pseudocode, but
in a language called Scratch, a language called C, a language
called Python and more. There are certain constructs in
programming, procedural programming, so to speak, that are going to be
common among all of these languages. Highlighted in yellow here are
what, henceforth, today and onward, we’re just going to call functions. These are verbs or actions
that just tell the computer, or in this case, the human, what to do. So those are functions. Now highlighted in yellow instead are
what we’re going to call conditions. These are branches, sort of forks in
the road so you can either do this or you can do that or maybe
this other thing as well. But to make those decisions, you
have to ask yourself a question. And those questions,
in computer science, are called Boolean expressions,
after a mathematician named Boole. And a Boolean expression,
highlighted now in yellow, are just questions that have yes or no
answers or, if you will, true or false answers or, heck, now that we
know binary, one or zero answers. So even in code, we see a hint of
why ones and zeros are helpful. Lastly, there’s this thing here. Go back to line three. We’ve used it in two places. That refers to something
we’ll call a loop. It’s a cycle that does
something again and again. So beyond those four ideas, functions,
conditions, Boolean expressions, and loops, we’re about to see
a bunch of others, as well. Variables, reminiscent of what
you might recall from algebra, but more powerful now in
this context of programming. Something called threads and events. And we’re going to do this by way
of an actual programming language. But it’s not yet going to be this one. Indeed, just a week from now will you
actually understand what this means. Odds are 2/3 of you have no idea
what this actually is, and that’s OK. But it’s a program written
in a language called C– more on that next time– that quite simply says
hello to the world. But we’re going to do it today in
the context of a graphical language from my MIT’s Media Lab called Scratch. This is a language via which you
can program a computer by dragging and dropping blocks or things that
look like puzzle pieces that interlock together so that you can tell
the computer exactly what to do, step-by-step. And we’ll see in this language
today, and for the first problem set or programming assignment, that
you can express all of these ideas from pseudocode in an actual
language like Scratch. So what lies ahead? Well at scratch.MIT.edu, which
I’m about to pull up myself, is going to be where you spend
time in the first problem set. And it’s going to look quite
like this when you open it up. On the left hand side of this website,
this web-based programming environment from MIT, you’re going to
see on the left hand side a whole bunch of puzzle
pieces, so to speak. And they’re categorized according
to some different colors there on the left. In the middle, there’s just going
to be a big white canvas, initially, onto which you can drag and
drop those puzzle pieces and lock them together to
make the program do something. What can you make it do? Well, on the top right here is
the so-called stage in Scratch. By default, there’s only one
character, or sprite, on that stage. Scratch himself, and he can
move up, down, left, right and do any number of
other things if you tell him what to do by dragging and
dropping those puzzle pieces. If you don’t like that cat
or you want many others, you can also add multiple
sprites, or characters, by creating them in that area. So let’s actually do this
now with some sample programs such that we can actually begin
programming using this environment. I’m going to go ahead now
and open up a browser here. And in just a moment, you’ll see on
the screen scratch.MIT.edu itself. So if I go ahead and create
by simply clicking up there, we’ll see this editor, ultimately, that,
by default, has this tutorial that I’m going to go ahead and dismiss. But now we see that same environment. And you’ll see that above
Scratch here over at top right, there’s this green flag
and this stop sign. The green flag is what you can click
as the human to make the program go. The stop sign will
make any program stop. So it turns out among all
of these categories here, there’s, for instance, some
orange ones called Control. There’s some yellow ones called Events. And we’ll focus on
this latter one first. If I go ahead and drag from
events this puzzle piece here, this is how I can begin programming. When the green flag is
clicked, do the following. What do I want to do? Well, let’s have this
cat just say hello. And from having used
this program before, I know that under Looks, I can go ahead
and say something like, say hello. And notice not only does the shape
match the orange puzzle piece or yellow puzzle piece, notice that it
magnetically wants to snap together, and if I let go, it will. And I’m going to say perhaps
one of the most canonical things to say in your very first program,
which is just, conventionally, hello world, and leave it at that. I’m going to now go ahead
and click the green flag. And voila, our very first program. The same effect. [APPLAUSE] Thank you. Thank you. Very low bar so far, but
we’ll improve upon this next because this cat is pretty inanimate
and is just now saying hello. What if we wanted him to do more than
that and say not hello, but hello to me or hello to you? Well, it turns out we can do this
a little differently, as well. I’m going to go ahead and throw
this away by just dragging it over on the left. And the puzzle piece just goes away. And if I poke around a little
further under these blue blocks, for instance, Sensing, there’s
a bunch of puzzle pieces related to Scratch’s environment. And one of those is this one
here, ask, what’s your name? And wait. But that what’s your name
expression is in a white box that I can actually change. So you can ask any questions you want,
but I’ll go ahead and use that default. And now notice also over
here in blue is Answer, which is another circular shape
which represents what we’re going to start calling a variable. That variable is going to store
whatever the human types in when asked for his or her name. So what do I want to do when I
actually get the person’s name? Well, let me go back to Looks. Let me go ahead and say hello. And I’ll go ahead and say hello and
then another one, say hello again. But instead of this, I
want it to say my name. But it would be incorrect to just type
my name because then my name is always going to be David no matter who plays
this game or is asked the question. So I don’t want to do that. If I go instead to Sensing and then
drag and drop this puzzle piece, notice this. It wants to magnetically snap in there. And it will grow to fit it. So now I can say hello
and then I can say name. So let me go ahead and
hit stop and play again. What’s your name? I’ll go ahead and type in David. Enter. And now David. Huh, I feel like we forgot the hello. This is my first bug. Any thoughts as to why? What did I do wrong? Yeah? AUDIENCE: [INAUDIBLE] DAVID MALAN: Yeah. I mean, I told the computer via
this algorithm to do three things, ask what’s your name and
wait, but then I just say said hello, say answer
in such rapid succession. And my God, our Macs and
PCs and phones these days are so fast, they’re going to do
so many things so quickly that it did say hello, it’s just
none of us really saw it because my name immediately overrode it. So I can fix this in a couple of ways. Let me go ahead and go back
to Looks for just a moment, get rid of this puzzle piece, and
maybe say hello for two seconds. Then let me go ahead and say my name
or the user’s name for two seconds as by dragging answer now into here. So that was my first bug
in code, so to speak. Let me go ahead and play again, type
in David, and now it’s hello, David. All right. So better. It’s a little weird
because you typically don’t greet someone by saying
hello, David, two seconds later. So what if we kind of
combine this expressions and say not hello world,
but hello comma David? Well, we can do this in a different way. Let me go back over here and, for
instance, get just one of those say blocks like this. I’m not going to worry about saying
it for some number of seconds because I’m only going
to say one thing now. But I somehow want to say hello
comma and then the user’s name. Well, if I poke around
further, and you would only know this by having seen
it before, it turns out there’s this puzzle piece
down here called Join. And it’s a little weird that the
default words are apple and banana, but those are just placeholders. If I go ahead and drag this
over here, it grows to fill and it overwrites what was there. I can say hello comma and
then instead of hello banana, let me go back to Sensing,
drag the user’s answer, and now we say hello comma so and so. So let’s try this now instead. Green flag, type in my name, Enter. Hello comma David. So now the program isn’t all
that much more complicated, but notice that we’re starting to
nest these verbs, these functions. We’re asking for a name and
then we’re saying the result of joining the following two things. So there’s a few ideas to
keep track of at a time. But this is actually quite like what
we were doing from the get-go earlier as follows. For instance, if we want to just say
hello world with this puzzle piece here, this actually maps perfectly
to our fundamental definition of what problem solving is. The input to that puzzle piece
is, of course, just hello world. The function or algorithm that you want
to execute, step-by-step instructions for saying something, Scratch calls
Say in purple, and the output you want, of course, is Scratch
saying hello world. Now in the more sophisticated
example, consider this. We asked what’s your name? And then we waited. Well, that picture would
look like this instead. The input to that question is,
of course, what’s your name? The algorithm, or in
this case, function, via which we’re solving that problem is
to ask and wait, taking in that input. And the output we get
back is now answer. And then lastly in that third example,
where things got a little fancier and you had to start dragging and
dropping and nesting these puzzle pieces, notice that
this is the same idea. The input now is two
things, hello and answer. Those go into a function
called Join, the output of which should be hello comma David. But now we want to pass that output
as the input to the Say block so that the final result is hello,
David right out of the cat’s mouth. So in this way, even with the
simplest of puzzle pieces, does everything fit into this
same model of problem solving. But let’s now make things
a little more interesting. Rather than just talk and text
with this cat, let’s go ahead and have it do some
other things instead. Let me go ahead under
Sound, for instance, and it looks like there’s a block
in pink here called Play Sound Meow until done. And now let me stop the old
program and start the new. [CAT MEOWING] OK. A little piercing, but adorable. And if you want to hear it again– [CAT MEOWING] –I can click the green flag– [CAT MEOWING] –and I can click the green flag. Of course, this is a pretty
boring cat if it goes lifeless after it said just one meow. How would we get it to perpetuate that
sound and just meow every few seconds? What constructor idea
might we want to use here? AUDIENCE: [INAUDIBLE] DAVID MALAN: Yeah, so some kind of loop. So it turns out in Scratch,
there’s a few ways to do this. But if I go down to Control,
you’ll see a couple of blocks here. Repeat some number of times,
by default, 10, or forever. I’m going to go ahead and
maybe do this forever. [LAUGHTER] And I’m going to drag and
drop this now into here. Notice I can move things
around wherever I want. And now I can reattach this up here. And now play. [CAT MEOWING REPEATEDLY] It’s a very agitated cat at the moment. I can calm him down, perhaps,
by dragging and dropping this. And notice even if there’s no
room, it will grow to fill. [CAT MEOWING SLOWED DOWN] One second. Now it’s a happier cat, if you will. But now that we have the ability to
have the cat do something forever, it doesn’t have to just do the
same thing again and again. It can interact with
me or its environment. So instead of playing the sound here– someone following along at home? So instead of playing the sound
here, let me go ahead and try this. Let me go to Sensing and go ahead to– what might I want to do here? Let’s go ahead and under Motion, rather,
under here, point toward mouse pointer. So point towards mouse pointer and then
go ahead and move some number of steps. And I’m going to have it move one
step or dot or pixel at a time. And here now we’ll get this effect. It looks as though now he’ll
kind of follow me, right? And as I move my cursor,
he is forever pointing toward the cursor then moving one step. Of course, he’s a little slow. And let me go ahead and stop. If I make him take 10 steps at a time,
or 10 dots or pixels on the screen, now it seems a little harder to avoid. And you can sort of– he’ll literally do as you
move your cursor here. All right. So now that we have the ability to
do something again and again, let’s have something count up. For this one, let me go ahead
and grab something from online. So on CS50’s website, we’ll always
make available the examples and source code from each class. And this time, I want to go
ahead and get this sheep here. So it turns out you don’t
have to just use a cat. You can use a sheep if you prefer. And let’s see. By looking at this code first,
what is this sheep going to do? When the green flag is clicked,
there’s this orange puzzle piece called Counter to one. What is that? That’s an example of– what might we call this? Yeah. It’s called a variable. Now in algebra, we typically
use x and y and z for variables. In programming, when you
want to store some value in a placeholder like a
variable, you typically give it more descriptive words
because x, y, and z don’t really tell the programmer or someone
reading it what it’s doing. So we call this variable Counter
and we set it equal to 1. Now forever, the sheep
is going to do what? It’s going to say the
counter for one second, it’s going to then wait
for one second, and then it’s going to change, or add 1
to, the counter as its final step. So here we have, if you
will, counting sheep whereby it will now just perpetually
count up from 1 to 2 to 3. And probably, if we let this
thing go, up to infinity. So once we have the ability
now to do variables, what if we start to make our
programs more interactive and start to remember information? Let me go ahead and into
our examples from before, and grab another example
here now instead. I’m going to go back to what’s
called a Studio in Scratch, where all of these
examples currently are. And I’m going to go and open
up an example called pet 0. Computer scientists typically
start counting from zero because that’s symbolic of all
of the light bulbs being off. And so here’s a program
now that if I hit Play does not seem to
do anything at first, but notice as I move my cursor over– [CAT MEOWING] –I’m kind of petting
the cat now, if you will. So how is this working? Well, he, too, is just forever listening
or waiting for something to happen. It’s forever doing this if
Touching Mouse Pointer then Play Sound Meow until done. So now the cat is being responsive to
the user input not following my cursor, but responding just if I’m
actually hovering over him. We can, of course, change this up a
little bit in version two of this, otherwise known as pet one
because we started counting at 0. What should I not do with this program? [CAT MEOWING] Maybe don’t pet this cat. Why? Well, this time it is forever checking
if I’m touching the mouse pointer. And if so, it’s going to
apparently play a sound roar, else it plays the sound Meow,
which seems to be happening. So here we go. [CAT MEOWING] [CAT ROARING] So don’t pet the cat. And so that’s just a condition asking
a question, a so-called Boolean expression if Touching Mouse Pointer. Well, now let’s do something
a little fancier still. Let me go ahead here and do this. Let me go ahead and make this one
from scratch, no pun intended. And I’m going to go ahead
and start with an event. When the green flag is clicked, let
me go ahead and grab some motion here. Let me go ahead and grab Set
Rotation Style to left right just because this will make sure
that he ultimately does as we intend. I’m going to go to Control. I’m going to do the following forever. Suppose I want the cat to just
bounce back and forth on the screen. Well, the first thing I need to
do is animate him and actually make him start moving. And the best way to do that, frankly,
would just be to go to Motion and move some number of steps, maybe
10 steps to go quickly or one step to go slowly. But I can ask a question
every time the cat moves. I can go and ask something like this. If something is true, go ahead
and maybe do something else. So maybe bounce off the wall. So how do I say if you’re touching the
edge, go ahead and bounce backwards? Well, it turns out if you poke around,
you’ll see something like this. If touching Not Mouse
Pointer, but notice this edge, I can use the little dropdown,
change what the puzzle piece says. I can now move this Boolean
expression into place. The condition will grow to fill. And what do I want to now do? Well, if he touches the edge,
I’m going to go ahead and say turn not 15 degrees, which is the
default, but I’ll do it 180 instead. And now we have our own little animation
where he’s going back and forth and back and forth. Of course, this seems
a little unrealistic that he’s just bouncing happily so,
so there is a non-academic feature we can now introduce. For instance, you can turn on your
computer’s microphone and say ouch. That is what Ouch looks like. If I go ahead and save this, call
this Ouch, go back now to my code. Let’s go ahead and into sound here
and maybe play not the sound Meow, but maybe the sound Ouch,
such that now this cat– [OUCH SOUND PLAYING REPEATEDLY] OK. So maybe a little more dynamic. But it turns out he’s really
not walking or running. He’s really just– [OUCH SOUND] –sliding across the screen, right? His legs are never actually moving. Now, why is that? Well, it turns out that the costume
that this sprite is wearing, that the cat is, it’s just a picture. It’s an image composed
of lots of little dots. And you know what? To animate a character and bring
some life to it, so to speak, all we really need is at
least one more picture. After all, that’s all an animated
GIF or a video is, multiple pictures. So here’s one, here’s two. Here’s one, here’s two. And even though he’s definitely
making some leaps with each stride, if you do this fast
enough, it would seem that the cat is actually
making some motion and walking instead of just sliding. So how might I go ahead and do this? Let me go ahead and open up this
example, which I’ve made in advance. This one’s called bounce one. And in bounce one here, I have
the following second costume. If I go ahead and click See
Inside and click Play Now, you’ll notice now he’s kind of moving. It’s a little jaggy because he’s moving
from one position to another really quickly, but now it’s
the illusion of movement. So if you’ve ever played
a game or you’ve ever created some animation
yourself or even a film, this really is what’s been happening
underneath the hood all this time. But you don’t have to have just
one cat or one sprite in a program. We can actually have multiple. Let me go ahead and open
up another animal here. This one, a sea lion. So in this sea lion here, if
I See Inside and see its code, there’s a lot going on here. So let’s see what this thing does first. If I go ahead and click the green flag– [SEA LION BARKING] –it’s really, really annoying. [SEA LION BARKING] Now, why is that? There’s some loop in here, clearly,
that’s just doing the same thing again and again and again. How might, based on this code, I
stop the sea lion from barking? Yeah. So that’s the solution. Let’s go ahead and hit the space bar. Why did that actually
get him to stop barking? Well, notice this. There’s two scripts
in this program, which is a little different from before. Each of these represents
a script or a program. Notice here there’s a variable called
muted, and by default, it’s false. That is off. So muted is false, or off,
which means it’s not muted, which is why we hear it. Then it does forever the following. If the key space is pressed, go ahead
and check the following question. If muted is true, change muted to
false, else change muted to true. So this is a very common
approach in programming where if you have a variable,
like something called muted that’s either true or false,
1 or 0, on or off, you can change its value by
just asking that question. If muted is true, change it
to false, else set it to true. Meanwhile, if we scroll up,
there’s another script here that was doing something
again and again. And I’ll zoom in on this one. When the green flag was clicked, the
sea line was also forever doing this. If muted is false, that
is, if it’s not muted, go ahead and play the sound sea
lion and go ahead and say hi, hi, hi for two seconds and then
wait for one second. And do that again and again and again. So in programming, as in Scratch here,
you can do multiple things at a time sometimes with languages,
such that they’re both running together in parallel,
if you will, or looping again. And they can somehow intercommunicate
by using something like a variable. Let’s look at one final example
involving two different sprites, this one an old school game
that you might recall growing up called Marco Polo. In this game of Marco
Polo, one person yells out Marco and one or more
other people yell out Polo. And the first of them is
typically blindfolded, so you’re trying to find that person
based only on his or her voice’s response. So in this program here, if I go
ahead and click the green flag, notice that nothing happens
yet until I hit the space bar. And we’ll see that the orange puppet
says Marco and the blue puppet says Polo. But how does that work? Well, here is the code
for the orange puppet. Forever, he is doing the following. If the key space is pressed, that is the
space bar, say Marco for two seconds, but then one other feature. And this is new. It broadcasts what’s called an event. So it turns out that
computers can’t just see what another program
or sprite is doing, but they can listen for
something called an event. It’s sort of a secret message
from one program to another. So broadcast event is this other
puzzle piece that can just say event. And now notice if I click not
on the orange puppet down here, but on the blue, the blue
puppet has even less code, but it is not waiting for
the green flag to be clicked. Instead, it is waiting until
it receives this so-called an event, a sort of invisible
message from one sprite to another. And once he receives that event,
it says Polo for two seconds. All right. So along the way, it turns
out that there are better ways to solve some of these problems. And we can actually start to think
now a little more in terms of design, the design of the quality of your code. I’m going to go ahead and do this. Under events, I’m going to go ahead
and grab when green flag is clicked, and I’m going to go ahead
and say something this time. Let’s go ahead and say cough
for one second like this. And then let me go ahead and wait
for some number of seconds, like one. And then you know what? Let me go ahead and cough three times. It’s not uncommon when you’re
coughing, in the real world, to cough three times. So I’m going to right
click or Control click, I’m going to go ahead and duplicate,
and just attach another one of those. And I’m going to right click or
Duplicate and give me one of these. And now, of course, the cat is going
to cough, cough, cough or meow, and three times in a row. Now this code is correct. It does cough three times and
it waits one second after each, but it’s not very good code. It’s not well-designed, as a
computer scientist would say. What could we do better with this code
based on the ideas we’ve seen thus far? AUDIENCE: [INAUDIBLE] DAVID MALAN: Yeah. So we can loop instead, right? And Copy Paste is
rarely the solution when programming, be it in Scratch or in
C or in Python or other languages. So I’m actually going to
throw all of this away. Let me go ahead and just
grab a repeat block, change that default ten to three. Let me grab these pairs of
blocks and put them in here, drag and drop this up here. So now I’m going to go ahead and repeat
three times, say cough for a second, and then wait one second. And now the program is
just better designed. It is no different from before,
but it’s a little easier to maintain now for me or
someone else because if I want to change how long something’s
happening or what’s being said, I can change it now in one
place instead of multiple. But there’s this other idea in computer
science, this notion of abstraction. Right now, this is a
program that just so happens to implement the notion of coughing. But what if I want to use the
same idea in multiple programs and I want to give myself a
custom puzzle piece that does not come with Scratch called cough? Well, there’s this one other feature
up here I can do like my blocks, and I can make a block. And I’m going to go ahead
and call this cough. And that puzzle piece, once I click
OK, is going to give me this pink block here. I’m going to go ahead now, for
instance, and move all of this down to the custom puzzle piece. And now notice because I’ve made a new
block, I have this pink piece here. I can now move this over here. And frankly, out of sight, out of mind. I can literally ignore
those puzzle pieces I created because now I
have a new puzzle piece just called cough that says what it does. This is an abstraction
in the sense that I don’t care how you implement coughing,
I just care that your program can cough. And so we have this
notion of reusability that starts to make our code no
less sophisticated, but much, much smaller and much less
prone, potentially, to mistakes. And I can take this one step further. Let me go ahead and open up a different
variant of this one altogether, this one in cough three. You can have these custom puzzle
pieces even take arguments. You can have this puzzle
piece called cough say, well, how many times do you want
to cough, thereby taking an input. Then you can repeat that number of times
cough for a second and wait one second. So if you want to now use this
fancier puzzle piece up here, notice this now looks even simpler. Go ahead and cough three times. And everything has been abstracted away. If I scroll up and out of
the way, you don’t even know or have to care how or
why cough was implemented. And so whereas we began
this whole conversation just looking for Mike Smith and
trying to find an answer to a problem correctly, we talked then about
efficiency and finding that solution not only for sure, but also quicker. And now we’ve spoken
a little bit to ideas that lie ahead when it comes to the
design of the quality of your code. So where does that actually leave us? Well, let me go ahead and open
up a couple of final examples here, one of them that I
actually made back in my day. And so this, when I actually started
using Scratch for the first time, it gave me this program
here called Oscar Time. And Oscar Time, reminiscent of an old
song from Oscar the Grouch singing, does this. [SINGING] There’s this stage. Notice the lamp post
here and the trashcan. And apparently, something
falling from the sky that looks like a piece of
trash, but it’s just a sprite. It’s what could have been a cat,
but I changed the costume on the cat to be a piece of trash. But notice if I move my
cursor and click and drag, notice that this piece of trash follows
the cursor just like Scratch followed my cursor before on the screen. And notice if I move it
over to the trash can, the trash can opens up,
which is a Sensing question. If touching trash can, then open up. And open up probably just
means change the costume to show a different image
instead of the original, thereby a very simple idea of animation. And now notice when I let go, if
touching trash can and let go, Oscar should come out of the trash can,
count up to one, which is my score, and then the game continues. Now there’s more trash falling. Let me go ahead and do this. And you’ll see that these basic
ideas of conditions and loops and variables and Boolean
expressions together can compose a pretty interactive game. This game took me eight
or more hours to make, and it’s because I did not sit down
and just make the whole thing at once. I took baby steps, so to speak. I first, frankly, did the easy part and
I just found an image of Sesame Street, put it on the stage, and boom. At least version one, all it
did was say Sesame Street. And it’s not interactive at all. Then I added a sprite, which
instead of being a cat, I changed the costume
to be the trash icon. And I just figured out the
code, the puzzle pieces, to make that puzzle
piece fall from the sky and then stop when
it’s on the edge, just like the cat was able to make a decision
to bounce when it touched the edge. And now things get a little crazy. The song gets more sophisticated. I added more and more sprites that
just fall in lockstep with the music. So this was quite a few hours
of effort, but it boils down to really the same principle, just
as this other program here does, too. And for this, rather
than me play it, let me invite one other volunteer
to come on up who’s got to be– OK, I see your hand here. What’s your name? MEGAN: Megan. DAVID MALAN: Megan. All right, Megan, we have a
game for you called– maybe I mentioned this–
[? IB’s ?] hardest game. OK, come on up. Nice to meet you. This is a game by one of
your former predecessors, who their problems said
zero, implemented this. You’ll see the instructions in
just a moment on the screen. We’ll see if we can’t inspire
some folks to root for you here. And after this, as is the tradition in
CS50, we will adjourn for some cake. So Megan, we have here for
you, [? IB’s ?] hardest game. I’m going to go ahead
and maximize the window. I’m going to go ahead and click
Begin and we’ll see the instructions. MEGAN: OK. DAVID MALAN: Good luck. MEGAN: Thanks. [MUSIC -MC HAMMER, “U CAN’T TOUCH THIS”] DAVID MALAN: Let’s go
ahead and raise the volume. Here we go. [MUSIC -MC HAMMER, “U CAN’T TOUCH THIS”] (SINGING) Can’t touch this. DAVID MALAN: So you’re going to move
the arrow keys and navigate your way, essentially– oh, yep– through a maze. Notice Megan’s not able to
go beyond the black borders because if touching edge, logic. Now when you touch the other sprite,
you advance to the next level. Two sprites now. Another Yale icon. (SINGING) From the Oaktown
and I’m known as such. And this is a beat you can’t touch. I told you, homeboy. DAVID MALAN: Nice. OK. [LAUGHTER] (SINGING) Yeah, that’s how
we living and you know. Can’t touch this. Look in my eyes, man. DAVID MALAN: Nice. (SINGING) Yo, let me
but the funky lyrics. Can’t touch this. [LAUGHTER] DAVID MALAN: Nice. [AUDIENCE GASPING] [APPLAUSE] (SINGING) Cold on a mission,
so pull them on back. Let them know that you’re too much and
this is a beat, uh, they can’t touch. Yo, I told you. [LAUGHTER] Why you standing there, man? Can’t touch this. Yo, sounds the bells. School is in, sucker. Can’t touch this. DAVID MALAN: OK. Good. Nice. [AUDIENCE GASPING] [LAUGHTER] (SINGING) Or a tape to learn
what’s it going to take? And now he’s going to burn the charts. DAVID MALAN: Oh! (SINGING) And you might as well quit. That’s word because you know– DAVID MALAN: No! That’s OK. Oh. It’s OK. Nice. Ah! [INAUDIBLE] Oh! Couple more lives. Nice. Oh! [AUDIENCE GASPING] OK. Yeah, you got it. MEGAN: Yes. Yep. Oh my God. DAVID MALAN: All right. One more life– two more lives! Three more lives! Come on. (SINGING) Bring the bill. School’s back in. Break it down. DAVID MALAN: Yes! [APPLAUSE] MEGAN: Up, up, up. (SINGING) Stop. Hammer time. DAVID MALAN: All right. Last life. Last life. Go, go! Here we go. All right. Nice, nice. Yes, yes. Ah! All right. A round of applause
for Megan, if we could. Check her out. Here you go. [APPLAUSE] This, then, is CS50. Welcome aboard. Cake is now served.

24 thoughts on “CS50 2019 – Lecture 0 – Computational Thinking, Scratch”

  1. I love watching him, his way of teaching has such impeccable flow. The storytelling gives the theory he's teaching such long legs.

  2. such a con job LOL
    sucker them in with video games ,
    then 4 weeks later hit them with hash tables and tries LOL
    poor naive students — you have no idea what you're in for

  3. I love Harvard's auditorium….
    This is very cool…
    He is my inspiration….one day I have to become a huge teacher like him…..😊😊😊😊

  4. I am an old timer. I was taught this in grade school back in the 80s. Its not new. This is a better way of presenting the same material.

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